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Molecules, Volume 16, Issue 11 (November 2011), Pages 8930-9774

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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8930-8944; doi:10.3390/molecules16118930
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 23 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
PDF Full-text (329 KB)
Abstract
The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO2 on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). For other [...] Read more.
The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO2 on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO2 treatments. CO2 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy) showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) in the 5th week than CO2 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week). Increasing the concentration of CO2 from 400 to 800 μmol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 μmol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO2 concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO2 to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO2 800) increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO2 800, G20) [800 = Ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO2 400, G20. In addition, the CO2 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO2 treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO2 level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO2 concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO2 and gamma irradiation) has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield per unit area via boosting photosynthesis capacity, as well as increasing biochemicals (flavonoids) per gram DM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Antifungal/Insecticidal Evaluation of Novel Cinnamide Derivatives
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8945-8957; doi:10.3390/molecules16118945
Received: 12 August 2011 / Revised: 2 October 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (341 KB)
Abstract
Twenty novel cinnamamide derivatives were designed and synthesized using as lead compound pyrimorph, whose morpholine moiety was replaced by β-phenylethylamine. All the compounds were characterized by their spectroscopic data. The fungicidal and insecticidal activities were also evaluated. The preliminary results showed [...] Read more.
Twenty novel cinnamamide derivatives were designed and synthesized using as lead compound pyrimorph, whose morpholine moiety was replaced by β-phenylethylamine. All the compounds were characterized by their spectroscopic data. The fungicidal and insecticidal activities were also evaluated. The preliminary results showed that all the title compounds had certain fungicidal activities against seven plant pathogens at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, and compounds 11a and 11l showed inhibition ratios of up to 90% against R. solani. Most of the title compounds exhibited moderate nematicidal activities. In general, the morpholine ring may be replaced by other amines and a chlorine atom in the pyridine ring is helpful to fungicidal activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Direct One-Pot Synthesis of Primary 4-Amino-2,3-diaryl-quinolines via Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling of 2-Aryl-4-azido-3-iodoquinolines with Arylboronic Acids
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8958-8972; doi:10.3390/molecules16118958
Received: 30 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
PDF Full-text (201 KB)
Abstract
Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 2-aryl-4-azido-3-iodo-quinolines with arylboronic acids afforded the corresponding primary 4-amino-2,3-diarylquinolines in a single-pot operation along with symmetrical biaryls and traces of the 2,3-diaryl-4-azidoquinolines. A plausible mechanism, which implicates palladium hydride species in the reduction of the incipient 2,3-diaryl-4-azidoquinolines to [...] Read more.
Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 2-aryl-4-azido-3-iodo-quinolines with arylboronic acids afforded the corresponding primary 4-amino-2,3-diarylquinolines in a single-pot operation along with symmetrical biaryls and traces of the 2,3-diaryl-4-azidoquinolines. A plausible mechanism, which implicates palladium hydride species in the reduction of the incipient 2,3-diaryl-4-azidoquinolines to afford the 4-amino-2,3-diarylquinolines is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Two New Xanthones from Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferae)
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8973-8980; doi:10.3390/molecules16118973
Received: 23 September 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
PDF Full-text (192 KB)
Abstract
The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts [...] Read more.
The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts lead to isolation of two new xanthones, identified as nodusuxanthone (1a) and trapezifolixanthone A (2). Other common terpenoids such as betulinic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and friedelin were also isolated from the extracts and identified. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis and comparison with previously reported data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of an Efficient Semi-Solid Culture Protocol for Sterilization and Plant Regeneration of Centella asiatica (L.) as a Medicinal Herb
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8981-8991; doi:10.3390/molecules16118981
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (549 KB)
Abstract
The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and medium (MS, Duchefa) on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and medium (MS, Duchefa) on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl2 and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33%) and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl2 0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium) was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667), number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079) and nodes (4 ± 0.067) per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107) and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm). Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%), the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107) and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm) occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of [(4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)amino]azines
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 8992-9002; doi:10.3390/molecules16118992
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (238 KB)
Abstract
The reactions of 2-, 3- and 4-aminopyridines with 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazol-ium chloride (Appel salt) 4 to give N-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)pyridin-X-amines 1a (X = 2), 1g (X = 3) and 1k (X = 4) were optimized with respect to base, temperature and reaction [...] Read more.
The reactions of 2-, 3- and 4-aminopyridines with 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazol-ium chloride (Appel salt) 4 to give N-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)pyridin-X-amines 1a (X = 2), 1g (X = 3) and 1k (X = 4) were optimized with respect to base, temperature and reaction time. Based on these conditions a total of thirteen [(dithiazol-ylidene)amino]azines 1a-m were prepared and fully characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocycles)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporium Dzf17 on Growth and Diosgenin Production in Cell Suspension Culture of Dioscorea zingiberensis
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9003-9016; doi:10.3390/molecules16119003
Received: 22 August 2011 / Revised: 19 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (198 KB)
Abstract
Three polysaccharides, namely exopolysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) and sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (SPS), were prepared from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporium Dzf17 isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. The effects of the time of addition and polysaccharide concentration [...] Read more.
Three polysaccharides, namely exopolysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) and sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (SPS), were prepared from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporium Dzf17 isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. The effects of the time of addition and polysaccharide concentration on the growth and diosgenin accumulation in cell suspension culture of D. zingiberensis were studied. Among them, WPS was found to be the most effective polysaccharide. When WPS was added to the medium at 20 mg/L on the 25th day of culture, the cell dry weight was increased 1.34-fold, diosgenin content 2.85-fold, and diosgenin yield 3.83-fold in comparison to those of control. EPS and SPS showed moderate and relatively weak enhancement effects on cell growth and diosgenin accumulation, respectively. The dynamics of cell growth and diosgenin accumulation when WPS was added to the medium at 20 mg/L on the 25th day of culture were investigated, and results showed that dry weight of cells reached a maximum value on day 30 but the maximum diosgenin content was achieved on day 31. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Analysis)
Open AccessArticle A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene Glucoside from Liriope muscari Fibrous Roots
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9017-9024; doi:10.3390/molecules16119017
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematocidal properties showed that the ethanol extract of Liriope muscari fibrous roots possessed significant nematocidal activity against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). From the ethanol extract, a new constituent (1,4-epoxy-cis [...] Read more.
The screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematocidal properties showed that the ethanol extract of Liriope muscari fibrous roots possessed significant nematocidal activity against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). From the ethanol extract, a new constituent (1,4-epoxy-cis-eudesm-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and three known glycosides [1β,6α-dihydroxy-cis-eudesm-3-ene-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (liriopeoside A), 1β,6β-dihydroxy-cis-eudesm-3-ene-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 1α,6β-dihydroxy-5,10-bis-epi-eudesm-4(15)-ene-6-O-β D-glucopyranoside] were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. 1,4-Epoxy-cis-eudesm-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside possessed moderate nemato-cidal activity against B. xylophilus with a LC50 value of 339.76 μg/mL, while liriopeoside A (LC50 = 82.84 μg/mL) and 1β,6β-dihydroxy-cis-eudesm-3-ene-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (LC50 = 153.39 μg/mL) also exhibited nematocidal activity against B. xylophilus. The crude extract of L. muscari fibrous roots exhibited nematocidal activity against the pine wood nematode with a LC50 value of 182.56 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization of “Alcaparras” Stoned Table Olives from Northeast Portugal
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9025-9040; doi:10.3390/molecules16119025
Received: 26 August 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (257 KB)
Abstract
Commercial stoned table olives named “alcaparras” from Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were chemically characterized. During three consecutive years (2004–2006) 30 samples (10 per year) were examined for their nutritional value (moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash, carbohydrates, and energy), with a detailed [...] Read more.
Commercial stoned table olives named “alcaparras” from Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were chemically characterized. During three consecutive years (2004–2006) 30 samples (10 per year) were examined for their nutritional value (moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash, carbohydrates, and energy), with a detailed report of the fatty acids and tocopherols composition. Water was the major constituent (72.5 ± 5.5%), followed by fat (14.6 ± 5.1%). The average amount of protein and ash were 1.1% and 3.4%, respectively, reporting unusual ash values for table olives, related to the technological process. One hundred grams of fresh stoned table olives presented an average energetic value of 156 kcal, lower than most table olives. The lipids are rich in oleic acid (average of 77.7 ± 2.0%), followed by palmitic acid and linoleic acid. Samples showed an average of total tocopherols of 1.2 mg/100 g of fresh weight, being α-tocopherol the most abundant. Table olives are important sources of MUFA, as olive oil, recognized as a preventive factor in diseases in which free radicals are implicated, complemented by the amounts of vitamin E, with both antioxidant and vitamin action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle One-Pot and Efficient Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via Reaction of Arylaldehydes with Urazole and Dimedone Catalyzed by Silica Nanoparticles Prepared from Rice Husk
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9041-9048; doi:10.3390/molecules16119041
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (184 KB)
Abstract
A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent [...] Read more.
A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Assisted Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Activity of Cichorium endivia L. Extract and Its Chemical Constituents
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9049-9066; doi:10.3390/molecules16119049
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 27 October 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (476 KB)
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of Cichorium endivia L. extract (CEE), and to identify its chemical constituents. CEE significantly blocked the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of Cichorium endivia L. extract (CEE), and to identify its chemical constituents. CEE significantly blocked the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, oral administration of CEE to mice before the treatment of t-BHP exhibited a markedly protective effect by lowering serum levels of ALT and AST, inhibiting the changes in liver biochemistry including MDA, SOD, GSH and GST, as well as ameliorating the liver injuries according to the histopathological observations. According to the acute oral toxicity test, the LD50 of CEE was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, which demonstrates that the CEE can be considered practically non-toxic. Phytochemical analysis of CEE showed the presence of five compounds identified as 2-furanmethanol-(5'→11)-1,3-cyclopentadiene-[5,4-c]-1H-cinnoline, which is a new cinnoline derivative derived from a natural source but not synthesis, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol, and adenosine. In the ORAC assay, CEE and its constituents kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside had considerable antioxidant potency. Taken together, CEE protects hepatic tissue from oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo, potentially due to its phenolic substances, and does not cause acute oral toxicity, which suggests that CEE may be a valid and safe remedy to cure liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Linear Polystyrene-Stabilized PdO Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck Reactions in Water
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9067-9076; doi:10.3390/molecules16119067
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 27 October 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (595 KB)
Abstract
Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic [...] Read more.
Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PS-PdONPs exhibited high catalytic activity for Mizoroki-Heck reactions under air in water and could be recycled without loss of activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reactions in Water)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry of the Lectin Extracted from the Seeds of Dioclea sclerocarpa Ducke
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9077-9089; doi:10.3390/molecules16119077
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 28 October 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (648 KB)
Abstract
Lectin from the seeds of Dioclea sclerocarpa (DSL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column. The primary sequence, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry, revealed a protein with 237 amino acids and 81% of identity [...] Read more.
Lectin from the seeds of Dioclea sclerocarpa (DSL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column. The primary sequence, as determined by tandem mass spectrometry, revealed a protein with 237 amino acids and 81% of identity with ConA. DSL has a molecular mass of 25,606 Da. The β and γ chains weigh 12,873 Da and 12,752 Da, respectively. DSL hemagglutinated rabbit erythrocytes (both native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing stability even after one hour of exposure to a specific pH range. The hemagglutinating activity of DSL was optimal between pH 6.0 and 8.0, but was inhibited after incubation with D-galactose and D-glucose. The pure protein possesses a molecular mass of 25 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 25,606 Da by mass spectrometry. The secondary structure content was estimated using the software SELCON3. The results indicate that b-sheet secondary structures are predominant in DSL (approximately 42.3% antiparallel b-sheet and 6.7% parallel b-sheet). In addition to the b-sheet, the predicted secondary structure of DSL features 4.1% a-helices, 15.8% turns and 31.3% other contributions. Upon thermal denaturation, evaluated by measuring changes in ellipticity at 218 nm induced by a temperature increase from 20 °C to 98 °C, DSL displayed cooperative sigmoidal behavior with transition midpoint at 84 °C and permitted the observation of two-state model (native and denatured). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9090-9100; doi:10.3390/molecules16119090
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 28 October 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory [...] Read more.
The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o.) recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electric-Field Response of Discotic Hexabenzocoronene (HBC) Liquid Crystals
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9101-9108; doi:10.3390/molecules16119101
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1855 KB)
Abstract
A HBC derivative bearing six branched, space-demanding, alkyl side chains containing ether linkages has been synthesized and its thermotropic properties were investigated by polarization optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To our surprise, this molecule can respond to electric fields, [...] Read more.
A HBC derivative bearing six branched, space-demanding, alkyl side chains containing ether linkages has been synthesized and its thermotropic properties were investigated by polarization optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To our surprise, this molecule can respond to electric fields, and the influences of alternating current (AC) and directing current (DC) electric field on the assembly of this molecule in liquid crystal cells were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9109-9115; doi:10.3390/molecules16119109
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (200 KB)
Abstract
From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens [...] Read more.
From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Lycium Barbarum Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on High-Fat-Diet Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver Tissue
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9116-9128; doi:10.3390/molecules16119116
Received: 26 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 1 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (218 KB)
Abstract
This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high fat diet (HF). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups of ten rats each and fed a different diet for eight weeks as follows: One group (NC group) was fed a standard diet, one group was fed a high-fat diet (HF group), one group was fed a high-fat diet and orally fed with 20 mg/kg b.w. simvastatin (HF + simvastatin group), and the other group was fed the high fat diet and orally fed with 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBAE (HF + LBAE), or 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBEE (HF + LBEE), respectively. After eight weeks, the HF diet caused deleterious metabolic effects. Rats fed the HF diet alone showed increased hepatocellular enzyme activities in plasma, a significant decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, and elevated liver lipid peroxidation indices. LBAE and LBEE administration significantly reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal levels. These data suggest that these antioxidants protect against toxicity parameters in HF rats. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9129-9141; doi:10.3390/molecules16119129
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 1 November 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (532 KB)
Abstract
A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR) and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities [...] Read more.
A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR) and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Polar Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae)
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9153-9160; doi:10.3390/molecules16119153
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 27 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
PDF Full-text (193 KB)
Abstract
Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae) are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the [...] Read more.
Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae) are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the HPLC-NMR technique. A number of polar compounds were identified, including proto-quercitol, nicotinic acid, allantoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, phthalic acid and the aporphine alkaloid derivative roemrefidine. Allantoic acid and roemrefidine have been fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Earlier reports of antiplasmodial activity of roemrefidine and of A. delagoensis extracts are correlated with this study and with the antipyretic properties of neutral aqueous extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloids: Novel Therapeutic Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle Small Molecule Library Synthesis Using Segmented Flow
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9161-9177; doi:10.3390/molecules16119161
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (174 KB)
Abstract
Flow chemistry has gained considerable recognition as a simple, efficient, and safe technology for the synthesis of many types of organic and inorganic molecules ranging in scope from large complex natural products to silicon nanoparticles. In this paper we describe a method [...] Read more.
Flow chemistry has gained considerable recognition as a simple, efficient, and safe technology for the synthesis of many types of organic and inorganic molecules ranging in scope from large complex natural products to silicon nanoparticles. In this paper we describe a method that adapts flow chemistry to the synthesis of libraries of compounds using a fluorous immiscible solvent as a spacer between reactions. The methodology was validated in the synthesis of two small heterocycle containing libraries. The reactions were performed on a 0.2 mmol scale, enabling tens of milligrams of material to be generated in a single 200 mL reaction plug. The methodology allowed library synthesis in half the time of conventional microwave synthesis while maintaining similar yields. The ability to perform multiple, potentially unrelated reactions in a single run is ideal for making small quantities of many different compounds quickly and efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multicomponent Reaction)
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives as Potential High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Receptor CLA-1 Up-Regulating Agents
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9178-9193; doi:10.3390/molecules16119178
Received: 30 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (605 KB)
Abstract
Trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) were reported in our recent publication as novel human high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor CD36 and Lysosomal integral membrane protein-II Analogous-1 (CLA-1) up-regulators. As part of a broader effort to more fully explore the [...] Read more.
Trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) were reported in our recent publication as novel human high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor CD36 and Lysosomal integral membrane protein-II Analogous-1 (CLA-1) up-regulators. As part of a broader effort to more fully explore the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of CLA-1 up-regulators, we synthesized a series of hydroxamic acid derivatives and evaluated their CLA-1 up-regulating activities in HepG2 cells. Some compounds exhibited over 10-fold up-regulation of CLA-1 expression in HepG2 cells at 10 μg/mL concentration. The compound 1g showed the best potency, with a lower EC50 than TSA (EC50 = 0.32 μM versus 1.2 μM). These compounds provide early new CLA-1 up-regulators with potential for treating atherosclerosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract 50 on Immunity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Ischemia Reperfusion Rats
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9194-9206; doi:10.3390/molecules16119194
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (147 KB)
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50), a well-known natural antioxidant, against immunity and antioxidant enzyme activities in ischemia reperfusion (IR) rats. Rats were then divided into six groups fed for 15 days [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50), a well-known natural antioxidant, against immunity and antioxidant enzyme activities in ischemia reperfusion (IR) rats. Rats were then divided into six groups fed for 15 days with the same diet: three groups (IV, V, VI) were treated by different doses of GBE50 suspension [20, 40, or 60 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage every day at a fixed time (10.00 a.m.)] (equal to 5, 10 and 20 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose), and three groups (I, II, III) were untreated. At the end of the experiment, rats’ hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion. Results showed that IR significantly enhanced heart rate, S-T height, myocardium (myeloperoxidase) MPO activity and blood interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor Alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, blood aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatinine kinase (CK) activities, reduced myocardium sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase), calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) activities and antioxidant enzyme activities in IR group (III) compared to sham control group (II). Pretreatment of GBE50 markedly significantly reduced heart rate, S-T height, myocardium MPO activity and blood IL-8, TNF-a, IL-1β levels, blood AST, LDH, and CK activities, enhanced myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities and antioxidant enzyme activities in IR group (II) compared to IR group (III). The results suggested that the GBE50 may reduce the oxidative stress in the reperfused myocardium, and increased immunity and antioxidant activities in IR rats. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9207-9217; doi:10.3390/molecules16119207
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (840 KB)
Abstract
Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC) in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive), Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify) and Rumex acetosa (common [...] Read more.
Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC) in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive), Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify) and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel) and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Berberine and Itraconazole Are not Synergistic in Vitro against Aspergillus fumigatus Isolated from Clinical Patients
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9218-9233; doi:10.3390/molecules16119218
Received: 15 October 2011 / Revised: 29 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (975 KB)
Abstract
The incidence of Aspergillus fumigatus infections has become more frequent as a consequence of widespread immunosuppression. At present, the number of available antifungal agents in the clinic is limited, and most of them, such as itraconazole (ICZ), are toxic and show resistance. [...] Read more.
The incidence of Aspergillus fumigatus infections has become more frequent as a consequence of widespread immunosuppression. At present, the number of available antifungal agents in the clinic is limited, and most of them, such as itraconazole (ICZ), are toxic and show resistance. Berberine (BER) is a plant alkaloid used in the clinic mainly for alimentary infections. We have used BER and ICZ to measure in vitro resistance in A. fumigatus isolated from clinical patients. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranges of BER and ICZ were 4–256 and 0.031–0.250 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, against A. fumigatus IFM 40808 strain, the MIC50 values of BER and ICZ were 8 and 0.125 μg/mL. Using this strain, we compared the giant colonies with or without BER, and concluded that BER could restrain A. fumigatus mycelial growth and conidial pigment production. Combinations of the two drugs were also tested by the checkerboard assay to identify any functional interactions between them. Thirty-two out of 42 isolates had FICI values > 4.0, indicating that two drugs were mutually antagonistic. In conclusion, it is not advised that BER and ICZ be used in the clinic at the same time. Our results indicated that BER may inhibit A. fumigatus through the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, like ICZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Icariside II Enhances Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation to Upregulate Phase II Detoxifying Enzyme Expression Coupled with the ERK, Akt and JNK Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9234-9244; doi:10.3390/molecules16119234
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (269 KB)
Abstract
In the present study, the potent inducers of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant stress responsive to icariside II was investigated. First, a dose of 0–10 µM icariside II showed no significantly cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells by MTT assays and icariside II could [...] Read more.
In the present study, the potent inducers of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant stress responsive to icariside II was investigated. First, a dose of 0–10 µM icariside II showed no significantly cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells by MTT assays and icariside II could enhance cellular GSH levels by ELISA assay. Then, the potential roles of ERK, Akt and JNK in the regulation of icariside II-induced Nrf2-dependent ARE transcriptional activity as well as ARE-mediated endogenous HO-1 and glutathione GST protein expression in HepG2 cells were estimated. Icariside II activated the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the up-regulated expression of Nrf2-related antioxidant protein OH-1 and GST were evaluated by Western blotting. Then the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and JNK1/2 were further examined by Western blotting assays. Results showed that icariside II significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and JNK1/2. Furthermore, icariside II-induced ARE transcriptional activity was attenuated by the inhibition of ERK, Akt and JNK signaling using biochemical inhibitors. These results suggest that the Nrf2/ARE pathway plays an important role in the regulation of icariside-mediated antioxidant effects in HepG2 cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Conditions for Extraction of Serine Protease from Kesinai Plant (Streblus asper) Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9245-9260; doi:10.3390/molecules16119245
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (330 KB)
Abstract
Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1), mixing time (2–6 [...] Read more.
Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper) leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1), mixing time (2–6 min, X2), buffer content (0–80 mL, X3) and buffer pH (4.5–10.5, X4) on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves. Full article
Open AccessArticle Xanthate Based Radical Cascade Toward Multicomponent Formation of Pyrrolopyrimidines
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9261-9273; doi:10.3390/molecules16119261
Received: 28 September 2011 / Revised: 23 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 4 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (412 KB)
Abstract A short sequential synthesis of pyrrolidino- pyridines and pyrimidines illustrates the potential of combining Ugi-Smiles couplings with radical tin-free processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multicomponent Reaction)
Open AccessArticle Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9298-9315; doi:10.3390/molecules16119298
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 27 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (11120 KB)
Abstract
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata [...] Read more.
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition, Molecular Modeling and Antioxidant Activities of Some Novel Schiff Bases Derived from 1-(2-Ketoiminoethyl)piperazines
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9316-9330; doi:10.3390/molecules16119316
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 24 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (604 KB)
Abstract
Some novel Schiff bases derived from 1-(2-ketoiminoethyl)piperazines were synthesized and characterized by mass spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Visible, 1H and 13C-NMR. The compounds were tested for inhibitory activities on human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), antioxidant activities, acute oral toxicity and further studied by molecular [...] Read more.
Some novel Schiff bases derived from 1-(2-ketoiminoethyl)piperazines were synthesized and characterized by mass spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Visible, 1H and 13C-NMR. The compounds were tested for inhibitory activities on human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), antioxidant activities, acute oral toxicity and further studied by molecular modeling techniques. The study identified the compound (DHP) to have the highest activity among the series in hAChE inhibition and DPPH assay while the compound LP revealed the highest activity in the FRAP assay. The hAChE inhibitory activity of DHP is comparable with that of propidium, a known AChE inhibitor. This high activity of DHP was checked by molecular modeling which showed that DHP could not be considered as a bivalent ligand due to its incapability to occupy the esteratic site (ES) region of the 3D crystal structure of hAChE. The antioxidant study unveiled varying results in 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. This indicates mechanistic variations of the compounds in the two assays. The potential therapeutic applications and safety of these compounds were suggested for use as human acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and antioxidants. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents and Biological Studies of the Leaves of Grevillea robusta
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9331-9339; doi:10.3390/molecules16119331
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
PDF Full-text (218 KB)
Abstract
Three new compounds: Graviquinone (1), cis-3-hydroxy-5-pentadecylcyclohexanone (2), and methyl 5-ethoxy-2-hydroxycinnamate (3), and thirty-eight known compounds were isolated and identified from the leaves of Grevillea robusta. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical transformation methods. Graviquinone (1) [...] Read more.
Three new compounds: Graviquinone (1), cis-3-hydroxy-5-pentadecylcyclohexanone (2), and methyl 5-ethoxy-2-hydroxycinnamate (3), and thirty-eight known compounds were isolated and identified from the leaves of Grevillea robusta. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical transformation methods. Graviquinone (1) showed the strongest cytotoxicity against MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cell lines. Methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (4), graviphane (13), and dehydrograviphane (14) exhibited very potent DPPH scavenging activity compared with α-tocopherol. Methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (4) and bis-norstriatol (17) demonstrated strong inhibition of L-DOPA oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase compared with kojic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessCommunication Consecutive Three-Component Synthesis of 3-(Hetero)Aryl-1H-pyrazoles with Propynal Diethylacetal as a Three-Carbon Building Block
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9340-9356; doi:10.3390/molecules16119340
Received: 30 September 2011 / Revised: 19 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (373 KB)
Abstract
A novel consecutive three-component synthesis of 3-(hetero)aryl-1H-pyrazoles via room temperature Sonogashira arylation of propynal diethylacetal used as a propargyl aldehyde synthetic equivalent has been disclosed. The final acetal cleavage-cyclocondensation with hydrazine hydrochloride at 80 °C rapidly furnishes the title compounds [...] Read more.
A novel consecutive three-component synthesis of 3-(hetero)aryl-1H-pyrazoles via room temperature Sonogashira arylation of propynal diethylacetal used as a propargyl aldehyde synthetic equivalent has been disclosed. The final acetal cleavage-cyclocondensation with hydrazine hydrochloride at 80 °C rapidly furnishes the title compounds in a one-pot fashion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multicomponent Reaction)
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Open AccessArticle Stigmasterol-Based Novel Low Molecular Weight/Mass Organic Gelators
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9357-9367; doi:10.3390/molecules16119357
Received: 25 October 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Conjugates consisting of stigmasterol and L-phenylalanine, interconnected through short-chained dicarboxylic acyls by ester and amide bonds, respectively, were synthesized as potential low molecular weight/mass organic gelators (LMWGs/LMMGs). Their physico-chemical properties were subjected to investigation, especially their ability to form gels reversibly based [...] Read more.
Conjugates consisting of stigmasterol and L-phenylalanine, interconnected through short-chained dicarboxylic acyls by ester and amide bonds, respectively, were synthesized as potential low molecular weight/mass organic gelators (LMWGs/LMMGs). Their physico-chemical properties were subjected to investigation, especially their ability to form gels reversibly based on changes of the environmental conditions. Other self-assembly properties detectable by UV-VIS traces were measured in systems consisting of two miscible solvents (water/acetonitrile) with varying solvent ratios and using constant concentrations of the studied compounds. Partition and diffusion coefficients and solubility in water were calculated for the target conjugates. The conjugate 3a was the only compound from this series capable of forming a gel in 1-octanol. All three conjugates 3a–3c displayed supramolecular characteristics in the UV-VIS spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroids)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3-Substituted-indolin-2-one Derivatives Containing Chloropyrrole Moieties
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9368-9385; doi:10.3390/molecules16119368
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (215 KB)
Abstract
Eighteen novel 3-substituted-indolin-2-ones containing chloropyrroles were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. The presence of a chlorine atom on the pyrrole ring was crucial to reduce cardiotoxicity. The presence of a 2-(ethyl-amino)ethylcarbamoyl group as a substituent at the C-4′ position of [...] Read more.
Eighteen novel 3-substituted-indolin-2-ones containing chloropyrroles were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. The presence of a chlorine atom on the pyrrole ring was crucial to reduce cardiotoxicity. The presence of a 2-(ethyl-amino)ethylcarbamoyl group as a substituent at the C-4′ position of the pyrrole enhanced the antitumor activities notably. IC50 values as low as 0.32, 0.67, 1.19 and 1.22 μM were achieved against non-small cell lung cancer (A549), oral epithelial (KB), melanoma (K111) and large cell lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H460), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Prospect of Newly Synthesized 1,3-Thiazole Derivatives
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9386-9396; doi:10.3390/molecules16119386
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (228 KB)
Abstract
A new series of 1,3-thiazole and benzo[d]thiazole derivatives 10–15 has been developed, characterized, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 25–200 μg/mL against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram–ve organisms such as [...] Read more.
A new series of 1,3-thiazole and benzo[d]thiazole derivatives 10–15 has been developed, characterized, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 25–200 μg/mL against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram–ve organisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 μg/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Compounds 11 and 12 showed notable antibacterial and antifungal activities at higher concentrations (125–200 μg/mL), whereas benzo[d]thiazole derivatives 13 and 14 were found to display significant antibacterial or antifungal activity (50–75 μg/mL) against the Gram+ve, Gram–ve bacteria, or fungal cells used in the present study. In addition, a correlation between calculated and determined partition coefficient (log P) was established which allows future development of compounds within this series to be carried out based on calculated log P values. Moreover, compounds 13 and 14 show that the optimum logarithm of partition coefficient (log P) should be around 4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of the Mexican Mistletoe (Psittacanthus calyculatus)
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9397-9403; doi:10.3390/molecules16119397
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (242 KB)
Abstract
A phytochemical study of the methanol-soluble fraction of an aqueous extract of a sample of Psittacanthus calyculatus collected from the host plant Prosopsis laevigata (Smooth Mesquite) using several techniques, including co-chromatography coupled with UV detection, chromatographic purifications and IR, NMR and MS [...] Read more.
A phytochemical study of the methanol-soluble fraction of an aqueous extract of a sample of Psittacanthus calyculatus collected from the host plant Prosopsis laevigata (Smooth Mesquite) using several techniques, including co-chromatography coupled with UV detection, chromatographic purifications and IR, NMR and MS studies, resulted in the identification of gallic acid, two flavonol-3-biosides and the nonprotein amino acid N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Succinobucol’s New Coat — Conjugation with Steroids to Alter Its Drug Effect and Bioavailability
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9404-9420; doi:10.3390/molecules16119404
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (397 KB)
Abstract
Synthesis, detailed structural characterization (X-ray, NMR, MS, IR, elemental analysis), and studies of toxicity, antioxidant activity and bioavailability of unique potent anti-atherosclerotic succinobucol-steroid conjugates are reported. The conjugates consist of, on one side, the therapeutically important drug succinobucol ([4-{2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[(1-{[3-tert [...] Read more.
Synthesis, detailed structural characterization (X-ray, NMR, MS, IR, elemental analysis), and studies of toxicity, antioxidant activity and bioavailability of unique potent anti-atherosclerotic succinobucol-steroid conjugates are reported. The conjugates consist of, on one side, the therapeutically important drug succinobucol ([4-{2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[(1-{[3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]sulfanyl}ethyl)sulfanyl]phenoxy}-4-oxo-butanoic acid]) possessing an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, and on the other side, plant stanol/sterols (stigmastanol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol) possessing an ability to lower the blood cholesterol level. A cholesterol-succinobucol prodrug was also prepared in order to enhance the absorption of succinobucol through the intestinal membrane into the organism and to target the drug into the place of lipid metabolism—The enterohepatic circulation system. Their low toxicity towards mice fibroblasts at maximal concentrations, their antioxidant activity, comparable or even higher than that of ascorbic acid as determined by direct quenching of the DPPH radical, and their potential for significantly altering total and LDL cholesterol levels, suggest that these conjugates merit further studies in the treatment of cardiovascular or other related diseases. A brief discussion of succinobucol’s ability to quench the radicals, supported with a computational model of the electrostatic potential mapped on the electron density surface of the drug, is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroids)
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Open AccessArticle Indatraline: Synthesis and Effect on the Motor Activity of Wistar Rats
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9421-9438; doi:10.3390/molecules16119421
Received: 17 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (599 KB)
Abstract
A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity [...] Read more.
A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana Leaves
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9439-9450; doi:10.3390/molecules16119439
Received: 19 August 2011 / Revised: 20 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (252 KB)
Abstract
Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, [...] Read more.
Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC). The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E)-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radial Scavenging Activities of the Constituents Isolated from Machilus zuihoensis
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9451-9466; doi:10.3390/molecules16119451
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (521 KB)
Abstract
A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢)- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae). The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by [...] Read more.
A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢)- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae). The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC50 is 30.4 μM) and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3), ethyl caffeate (6), and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7) treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1) and ethyl caffeate (6), were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO) production (IC50 value, 27.6 and 42.9 μM, respectively) in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6) down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenyl)ethyl Bromide + OH in Dimeric Micellar Solutions
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9467-9479; doi:10.3390/molecules16119467
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (232 KB)
Abstract
The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenyl)ethyl bromide + OH was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium) bromide, 12-s-12,2Br (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12) micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The [...] Read more.
The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenyl)ethyl bromide + OH was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium) bromide, 12-s-12,2Br (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12) micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reactions in Water)
Open AccessArticle Purification of a Lectin from Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott and Its Pro-Inflammatory Effects
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9480-9494; doi:10.3390/molecules16119480
Received: 24 October 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (605 KB)
Abstract
The monocot lectin from the tubers of Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott has been purified by consecutive hydrophobic chromatography and ion exchange chromatography methods. The molecular weight of this A. erubescens lectin (AEL) was determined to be about 12 kDa by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) methods. AEL could agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutination activity of AEL was only inhibited by asialofetuin, while monosaccharide did not react. Rat paw edema and neutrophil migration models were used to investigate the pro-inflammatory activity of AEL. AEL (100 and 200 μg/paw) could induce significant rat paw edema. In addition, AEL (100, 200 and 300 μg/mL/cavity) could induce significant and dose-dependent neutrophil migration in the rat peritoneal cavities. Besides, AEL at doses ranging from 100 to 300 μg/mL/cavity could significantly increase the concentration of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in peritoneal fluid. As compared with control animals, 75% depletion in the number of resident cells following peritoneal lavage did not reduce the AEL-induced neutrophil migration. However, pre-treatment with 3% thioglycollate which increased the peritoneal macrophage population by 201%, enhanced the neutrophil migration induced by AEL (200 μg/mL/cavity) (p < 0.05). Reduction of peritoneal mast cell population by chronic treatment of rat peritoneal cavities with compound 48/80 (N-methyl-p-methoxyphenethylamine with formaldehyde) did not modify AEL-induced neutrophil migration. The results provided the basis for identifying the toxic components of A. erubescens and AEL could be a new useful tool for pro-inflammatory research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerene Glycoconjugates by Carbene Addition
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9495-9504; doi:10.3390/molecules16119495
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Endohedral metallofullerene glycoconjugates were synthesized under mild conditions by carbene addition using appropriate glycosylidene-derived diazirine with La2@Ih-C80. NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the glycoconjugate consists of two diastereomers of [6,6]-open mono-adducts. The electronic properties were [...] Read more.
Endohedral metallofullerene glycoconjugates were synthesized under mild conditions by carbene addition using appropriate glycosylidene-derived diazirine with La2@Ih-C80. NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the glycoconjugate consists of two diastereomers of [6,6]-open mono-adducts. The electronic properties were characterized using Vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. This study demonstrates that glycosylidene carbene is useful to incorporate carbohydrate moieties onto endohedral metallofullerene surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fullerene Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A Triterpenoid from Thalictrum fortunei Induces Apoptosis in BEL-7402 Cells Through the P53-Induced Apoptosis Pathway
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9505-9519; doi:10.3390/molecules16119505
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 4 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (551 KB)
Abstract
Thalictrum fortunei S. Moore, a perennial plant distributed in the southeastern part of China, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years for its antitumor, antibacterial and immunoregulatory effects. In order to investigate the active components and the mechanism [...] Read more.
Thalictrum fortunei S. Moore, a perennial plant distributed in the southeastern part of China, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years for its antitumor, antibacterial and immunoregulatory effects. In order to investigate the active components and the mechanism of the anti-tumor effects of Thalictrum fortunei, the growth inhibitory effects of eight triterpenoids isolated from the aerial parts of the plant on tumor cell lines were examined by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazoy1-3,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The MTT-assay results showed that the inhibitory activity of 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-fucopyranosyl(22S,24Z)-cycloart-24-en-3β,22,26-triol 26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) was stronger than that of the other seven tested triterpenoids on human hepatoma Bel-7402 cell line (Bel-7402), human colon lovo cells (LoVo), human non-small cells lung cancer NCIH-460 cells (NCIH-460) and human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells (SGC-7901) after 48 h treatment in vitro, with the IC50 values of 66.4, 84.8, 73.5, 89.6 μM, respectively. Moreover, the antitumor mechanism of compound 1 on Bel-7402 cell was explored through nucleus dyeing, fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and western blot. The flow cytometric analysis results revealed that compound 1 caused apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss in Bel-7402 cells. A fluorescence assay indicated that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were markedly provoked by compound 1 treatment compared to control cells. Immunoblot results showed that compound 1 significantly increased the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, P53 and Bax protein, and decreased the expression level of Bcl-2 protein. These findings indicate that compound 1 inhibits the growth activity of tumor cells, probably through the P53 protein-induced apoptosis pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting Alkaloids from Zephyranthes concolor
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9520-9533; doi:10.3390/molecules16119520
Received: 17 October 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The bulbs and aerial parts of Zephyranthes concolor (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook. f. (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species to Mexico, were found to contain the alkaloids chlidanthine, galanthamine, galanthamine N-oxide, lycorine, galwesine, and epinorgalanthamine. Since currently only partial and low resolution 1H-NMR data for chlidanthine acetate are available, and none for chlidanthine, its 1D and 2D high resolution 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded. Unambiguous assignations were achieved with HMBC, and HSQC experiments, and its structure was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. Minimum energy conformation for structures of chlidanthine, and its positional isomer galanthamine, were calculated by molecular modelling. Galanthamine is a well known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; therefore, the isolated alkaloids were tested for this activity. Chlidanthine and galanthamine N-oxide inhibited electric eel acetylcholinesterase (2.4 and 2.6 × 10−5 M, respectively), indicating they are about five times less potent than galanthamine, while galwesine was inactive at 10−3 M. Inhibitory activity of HIV-1 replication, and cytotoxicity of the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in human MT-4 cells; however, the alkaloids showed poor activity as compared with standard anti-HIV drugs, but most of them were not cytotoxic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloids: Novel Therapeutic Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9534-9552; doi:10.3390/molecules16119534
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
PDF Full-text (691 KB)
Abstract
Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride), CHOL (Total cholesterol), LDL [...] Read more.
Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride), CHOL (Total cholesterol), LDL (Low density lipoprotein) and HDL (High density lipoprotein) levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p). Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic effect and also, adiponectin promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative decrease of ulcer areas, reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle One-Pot Synthesis of Novel 2,3-Dihydro-1H-indazoles
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9553-9561; doi:10.3390/molecules16119553
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A copper(I)-mediated one-pot synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1H-indazole heterocycles has been developed. This synthetic route provides the desired indazoles in moderate to good yields (55%–72%) which are substantially better than those achievable with an alternative two-step reaction sequence. The reaction is tolerant [...] Read more.
A copper(I)-mediated one-pot synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1H-indazole heterocycles has been developed. This synthetic route provides the desired indazoles in moderate to good yields (55%–72%) which are substantially better than those achievable with an alternative two-step reaction sequence. The reaction is tolerant of functionality on the aromatic ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocycles)
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Open AccessArticle Mn(III)-Initiated Facile Oxygenation of Heterocyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9562-9581; doi:10.3390/molecules16119562
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding [...] Read more.
The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radical Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle The Beneficial Effect of Hydrogen on CO Oxidation over Au Catalysts. A Computational Study
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9582-9599; doi:10.3390/molecules16119582
Received: 15 September 2011 / Revised: 30 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1289 KB)
Abstract
Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). A range of gold surfaces have been selected [...] Read more.
Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). A range of gold surfaces have been selected including the (100), stepped (310) surfaces and diatomic rows on the (100) surface. These diatomic rows on Au(100) are very efficient in H-H bond scission. O2 hydrogenation strongly enhances the surface-oxygen interaction and assists in scission of the O–O bond. The activation energy required to make the reaction intermediate hydroperoxy (OOH) from O2 and H is small. However, we postulate its presence on our Au models as the result of diffusion from oxide supports to the gold surfaces. The OOH on Au in turn opens many low energy cost channels to produce H2O and CO2. CO is selectively oxidized in a H2 atmosphere due to the more favorable reaction barriers while the formation of adsorbed hydroperoxy enhances the reaction rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Interaction of the Main Components from the Traditional Chinese Drug Pair Chaihu-Shaoyao Based on Rat Intestinal Absorption
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9600-9610; doi:10.3390/molecules16119600
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (221 KB)
Abstract
The Chaihu-Shaoyao drug pair (Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba) which is a traditional Chinese drug pair, has been widely used for anti-inflammatory purposes. Saikosaponin a (SSA), saikosaponin d (SSD) and paeoniflorin are identified as the main components in the pair. The present study focused on the interaction of the main components based on investigating their intestinal absorption using a four-site perfused rat intestinal model in order to clarify the mechanism of the compatibility of Chaihu-Shaoyao. The concentrations of SSA, SSD and paeoniflorin in the intestinal perfusate were determined by LC/MS or UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography) methods, followed by P*eff (effective permeability) and 10% ABS (the percent absorption of 10 cm of intestine) calculations. The results showed that all of the three main components displayed very low permeabilities(P*eff < 0.4), which implied their poor absorption in the rat intestine. The absorption levels of SSA and SSD were similar in intestine and higher in ileum than those in other intestinal regions in the decreasing order: colon, jejunum and duodenum. However, there is no significant difference in the absorption of paeoniflorin in the four segments (P < 0.05). The P*eff values of paeoniflorin exhibited an almost 2.11-fold or 1.90-fold increase in ileum when it was co-administrated with SSA and SSD, as well as 2.42-, 2.18-fold increase in colon, respectively, whereas the absorptions of SSA and SSD were not influenced by paeoniflorin. In conclusion, SSA and SSD could promote the absorption of paeoniflorin. To some extent this might explain the nature of the compatibility mechanisms of composite formulae in TCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9611-9619; doi:10.3390/molecules16119611
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (216 KB)
Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−)-copalic [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−)-copalic acid (CA) was the most active, displaying a very promising MIC value (3.1 µg mL−1; 10.2 µM) against the key pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) involved in this infectious disease. Moreover, CA did not exhibit cytotoxicity when tested in human fibroblasts. Time-kill curve assays performed with CA against P. gingivalis revealed that this compound only inhibited the growth of the inoculums in the first 12 h (bacteriostatic effect). However, its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). It was also possible to verify an additive effect when CA and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHD, positive control) were associated at their MBC values. The time curve profile resulting from this combination showed that this association needed only six hours for the bactericidal effect to be noted. In summary, CA has shown to be an important metabolite for the control of periodontal diseases. Moreover, the use of standardized extracts based on copaiba oleoresin with high CA contents can be an important strategy in the development of novel oral care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Methodology to Prepare N-Heterocycles Related to Dihydropyridines: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Alkyl 4-Arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate and 4-Arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-dione
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9620-9635; doi:10.3390/molecules16119620
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 26 October 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (361 KB)
Abstract
Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This eco-friendly approach to these valuable dihydropyridine derivatives does not involve the harsh or highly [...] Read more.
Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This eco-friendly approach to these valuable dihydropyridine derivatives does not involve the harsh or highly contaminating conditions common in classical heating and offers a reduction or even elimination of solvent use and recovery, simplification of the work-up procedures, facility of scale up, and low energy consumption, in addition to moderate to higher yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessCommunication A Planar Conformation and the Hydroxyl Groups in the B and C Rings Play a Pivotal Role in the Antioxidant Capacity of Quercetin and Quercetin Derivatives
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9636-9650; doi:10.3390/molecules16119636
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (527 KB)
Abstract
The polyphenol quercetin (Q) that has a high antioxidant capacity is a lead compound in the design of antioxidants. We investigated the possibility of modifying quercetin while retaining its antioxidant capacity as much as possible. To this end, the antioxidant [...] Read more.
The polyphenol quercetin (Q) that has a high antioxidant capacity is a lead compound in the design of antioxidants. We investigated the possibility of modifying quercetin while retaining its antioxidant capacity as much as possible. To this end, the antioxidant capacities of Q, rutin, monohydroxyethyl rutinoside (monoHER) and a series of synthesized methylated Q derivatives were determined. The results confirm that the electron donating effect of the hydroxyl groups is essential. It was also found that the relatively planar structure of Q needs to be conserved. This planar conformation enables the distribution of the electron donating effect through the large conjugated π-system over the entire molecule. This is essential for the cooperation between the electron donating groups. Based on the activity of the compounds tested, it was concluded that structural modification at the 5 or 7 position is the most optimal to retain most of the antioxidant capacity of Q. This was confirmed by synthesizing and testing Q5OMe (Q6) and Q7OMe (Q7) that indeed displayed antioxidant capacities closest to Q. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Biological Activity of Carbazole Alkaloids and Essential Oil of Murraya koenigii Against Antibiotic Resistant Microbes and Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9651-9664; doi:10.3390/molecules16119651
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 11 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (295 KB)
Abstract
A total of three carbazole alkaloids and essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) were obtained and examined for their effects on the growth of five antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, P 388 and Hela). [...] Read more.
A total of three carbazole alkaloids and essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) were obtained and examined for their effects on the growth of five antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, P 388 and Hela). The structures of these carbazoles were elucidated based on spectroscopy data and compared with literature data, hence, were identified as mahanine (1), mahanimbicine (2) and mahanimbine (3). The chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). These compounds exhibited potent inhibition against antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (210P JTU), Psedomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619), Klebsiella pneumonia (SR1-TU), Escherchia coli (NI23 JTU) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SR16677-PRSP) with significant minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values (25.0–175.0 mg/mL) and minimum bacteriacidal concentrations (MBC) (100.0–500.0 mg/mL). The isolated compounds showed significant antitumor activity against MCF-7, Hela and P388 cell lines. Mahanimbine (3) and essential oil in particular showed potent antibacteria and cytotoxic effect with dose dependent trends (≤5.0 μg/mL). The findings from this investigation are the first report of carbazole alkaloids’ potential against antibiotic resistant clinical bacteria, MCF-7 and P388 cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Lipase-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Aryltrimethylsilyl Chiral Alcohols
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9697-9713; doi:10.3390/molecules16119697
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (243 KB)
Abstract
Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios [...] Read more.
Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios (E > 200) and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S)-alcohol and (R)-acetylated product (>99%). However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organosilicon Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Trypanocidal Activity of Oxoaporphine and Pyrimidine-β-Carboline Alkaloids from the Branches of Annona foetida Mart. (Annonaceae)
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9714-9720; doi:10.3390/molecules16119714
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 17 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (203 KB)
Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH2Cl2 extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3 [...] Read more.
Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH2Cl2 extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3), and annomontine (4). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data from IR, MS, NMR (1D and 2D), and comparison with the literature. Compounds 24 showed potent trypanocidal effect when evaluated against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aporphines and Oxoaporphines)
Open AccessArticle Soulamarin, a New Coumarin from Stem Bark of Calophyllum soulattri
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9721-9727; doi:10.3390/molecules16119721
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (267 KB)
Abstract
The extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri gave a new pyranocoumarin, soulamarin (1), together with five other xanthones caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), trapezifolixanthone (5) and brasixanthone [...] Read more.
The extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri gave a new pyranocoumarin, soulamarin (1), together with five other xanthones caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), trapezifolixanthone (5) and brasixanthone B (6) one common triterpene, friedelin (7), and the steroidal triterpene stigmasterol (8). The structures of these compounds were established based on spectral evidence (1D and 2D NMR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins and Xanthones)
Open AccessArticle A Curcumin Derivative, 2,6-Bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BDMC33) Attenuates Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis via Selective Suppression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in IFN-g/LPS-Stimulated Macrophages
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9728-9738; doi:10.3390/molecules16119728
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (421 KB)
Abstract
Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and cyclooxygenase [...] Read more.
Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in IFN-g/LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that BDMC33 significantly inhibited PGE2 synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner albeit at a low inhibition level with an IC50 value of 47.33 ± 1.00 µM. Interestingly, the PGE2 inhibitory activity of BDMC33 is not attributed to inhibition of the COX enzyme activities, but rather BDMC33 selectively down-regulated the expression of COX-2. In addition, BDMC33 modulates the COX expression by sustaining the constitutively COX-1 expression in IFN-g/LPS-treated macrophage cells. Collectively, the experimental data suggest an immunodulatory action of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and COX expression, making it a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders with minimal gastrointestinal-related side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Diversity Oriented Design of Various Benzophenone Derivatives and Their in Vitro Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9739-9754; doi:10.3390/molecules16119739
Received: 3 October 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of new substituted benzophenone derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed some antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi, but lower antibacterial activities towards the [...] Read more.
A series of new substituted benzophenone derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed some antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi, but lower antibacterial activities towards the five vibrios isolated from marine sources. The preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR) of the compounds was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Methacrylate Monomers with Antibacterial Effects Against S. Mutans
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9755-9763; doi:10.3390/molecules16119755
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (179 KB)
Abstract
A series of polymerizable quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized with the aim of using them as immobilized antibacterial agents in methacrylate dental composites, and their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis. Their antibacterial activities against the oral [...] Read more.
A series of polymerizable quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized with the aim of using them as immobilized antibacterial agents in methacrylate dental composites, and their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis. Their antibacterial activities against the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans were evaluated in vitro by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration test, and the results showed that 2-dimethyl-2-hexadecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C16) had the highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans, and 2-dimethyl-2-pentyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C5) and 2-dimethyl-2-octyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C8) did not show any inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Polyphenols from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9764-9774; doi:10.3390/molecules16119764
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (196 KB)
Abstract
Substantial evidence suggests that phenolic extracts of Castanea mollissima spiny burs (CMPE) increase pancreatic cell viability after STZ (streptozotocin) treatment as a result of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of CMPE were studied in normal [...] Read more.
Substantial evidence suggests that phenolic extracts of Castanea mollissima spiny burs (CMPE) increase pancreatic cell viability after STZ (streptozotocin) treatment as a result of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of CMPE were studied in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats CMPE were orally administrated at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg twice a day for 12 consecutive days. Serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and SOD activity in liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues were measured spectrophotometrically. In normal rats, no significant changes were observed in serum glucose, lipid profiles and tissue MDA and GSH levels after orally administration of CMPE. In diabetic rats, oral administration of CMPE at a dose of 300 mg/kg caused significant decreases in serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels, as well as MDA and GSH levels in spleen and liver tissues. However, the 300 mg/kg dosage caused a significant body weight loss in both normal and diabetic rats. The observed effects indicated that CMPE could be further developed as a drug to prevent abnormal changes in blood glucose and lipid profile and to attenuate lipid peroxidation in liver and spleen tissues. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview MAOS and Medicinal Chemistry: Some Important Examples from the Last Years
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9274-9297; doi:10.3390/molecules16119274
Received: 16 September 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (440 KB)
Abstract
This review aims to highlight microwave-assisted organic synthesis as applied to medicinal chemistry in the last years, showing some reactions performed under microwave irradiation for the synthesis of distinct structurally molecules of biological interest, divided into the following groups: antineoplastics, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial [...] Read more.
This review aims to highlight microwave-assisted organic synthesis as applied to medicinal chemistry in the last years, showing some reactions performed under microwave irradiation for the synthesis of distinct structurally molecules of biological interest, divided into the following groups: antineoplastics, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial agents, antivirals, agents for the treatment of neglected diseases and central nervous system-acting prototypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Assisted Synthesis)
Open AccessReview A Journey Under the Sea: The Quest for Marine Anti-Cancer Alkaloids
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9665-9696; doi:10.3390/molecules16119665
Received: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (301 KB)
Abstract
The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and [...] Read more.
The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and many are now being tested in various phases of clinical trials. Recently, marine-derived alkaloids, isolated from aquatic fungi, cyanobacteria, sponges, algae, and tunicates, have been found to also exhibit various anti-cancer activities including anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, inhibition of topoisomerase activities and tubulin polymerization, and induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Two tunicate-derived alkaloids, aplidin and trabectedin, offer promising drug profiles, and are currently in phase II clinical trials against several solid and hematologic tumors. This review sheds light on the rich array of anti-cancer alkaloids in the marine ecosystem and introduces the most investigated compounds and their mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloids: Novel Therapeutic Perspectives)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Note Pyrazinecarboxamides as Potential Elicitors of Flavonolignan and Flavonoid Production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis Cultures In Vitro
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9142-9152; doi:10.3390/molecules16119142
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 1 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (224 KB)
Abstract
The effect of new synthetic pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives as potential elicitors of flavonolignan and flavonoid production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis cultures in vitro was investigated. Both tested elicitors increased the production of flavonolignans in S. marianum callus and suspension cultures and [...] Read more.
The effect of new synthetic pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives as potential elicitors of flavonolignan and flavonoid production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis cultures in vitro was investigated. Both tested elicitors increased the production of flavonolignans in S. marianum callus and suspension cultures and flavonoids in O. arvensis callus and suspension cultures. Compound I, 5-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-pyrazine-2-carboxamide, has shown to be an effective elicitor of flavonolignans and taxifoline production in Silybum marianum culture in vitro. The maximum content of silydianin (0.11%) in S. marianum suspension culture was induced by 24 h elicitor application in concentration of 1.159 × 10−3 mol/L. The maximum content of silymarin complex (0.08%) in callus culture of S. marianum was induced by 168 h elicitor application of a concentration 1.159 × 10−4 mol/L, which represents contents of silydianin (0.03%), silychristin (0.01%) and isosilybin A (0.04%) compared with control. All three tested concentrations of compound II, N-(2-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazin-2-carboxamide increased the flavonoid production in callus culture of O. arvensis in a statistically significant way. The best elicitation effect of all elicitor concentrations had the weakest c3 concentration (8.36 × 10−6 mol/L) after 168 h time of duration. The maximum content of flavonoids (about 5,900%) in suspension culture of O. arvensis was induced by 48 h application of c3 concentration (8.36 × 10−6 mol/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)

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