Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9534-9552; doi:10.3390/molecules16119534
Article

The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat

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Received: 13 September 2011; in revised form: 22 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride), CHOL (Total cholesterol), LDL (Low density lipoprotein) and HDL (High density lipoprotein) levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p). Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic effect and also, adiponectin promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative decrease of ulcer areas, reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer.
Keywords: adiponectin; metformin; blood glucose; gastric ulcer; acute toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fard, A.A.; Hajrezaie, M.; Kadir, F.A.; Sefideh, F.A.; Salama, S.M.; Al-Najar, Z.A.; Qader, S.W.; Alshawsh, M.A.; Abdulla, M.A. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat. Molecules 2011, 16, 9534-9552.

AMA Style

Fard AA, Hajrezaie M, Kadir FA, Sefideh FA, Salama SM, Al-Najar ZA, Qader SW, Alshawsh MA, Abdulla MA. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat. Molecules. 2011; 16(11):9534-9552.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fard, Atieh A.; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kadir, Farkaad A.; Sefideh, Fatemeh A.; Salama, Suzy M.; Al-Najar, Zahra A.; Qader, Suhailah W.; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Abdulla, Mahmood A. 2011. "The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat." Molecules 16, no. 11: 9534-9552.

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