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Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria
Nucleus of Research in Sciences and Technology, University of Franca, Franca, SP, 14404-600, Brazil
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2011; in revised form: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−)-copalic acid (CA) was the most active, displaying a very promising MIC value (3.1 µg mL−1; 10.2 µM) against the key pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) involved in this infectious disease. Moreover, CA did not exhibit cytotoxicity when tested in human fibroblasts. Time-kill curve assays performed with CA against P. gingivalis revealed that this compound only inhibited the growth of the inoculums in the first 12 h (bacteriostatic effect). However, its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). It was also possible to verify an additive effect when CA and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHD, positive control) were associated at their MBC values. The time curve profile resulting from this combination showed that this association needed only six hours for the bactericidal effect to be noted. In summary, CA has shown to be an important metabolite for the control of periodontal diseases. Moreover, the use of standardized extracts based on copaiba oleoresin with high CA contents can be an important strategy in the development of novel oral care products.
Keywords: copalic acid; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis; copaiba oleoresin; Copaifera langsdorffii
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MDPI and ACS Style
Souza, A.B.; Souza, M.G.M.; Moreira, M.A.; Moreira, M.R.; Furtado, N.A.J.C.; Martins, C.H.G.; Bastos, J.K.; Santos, R.A.; Heleno, V.C.G.; Ambrosio, S.R.; Veneziani, R.C.S. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria. Molecules 2011, 16, 9611-9619.
Souza AB, Souza MGM, Moreira MA, Moreira MR, Furtado NAJC, Martins CHG, Bastos JK, Santos RA, Heleno VCG, Ambrosio SR, Veneziani RCS. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria. Molecules. 2011; 16(11):9611-9619.
Souza, Ariana B.; Souza, Maria G. M. de; Moreira, Maísa A.; Moreira, Monique R.; Furtado, Niege A. J. C.; Martins, Carlos H. G.; Bastos, Jairo K.; Santos, Raquel A. dos; Heleno, Vladimir C. G.; Ambrosio, Sergio Ricardo; Veneziani, Rodrigo C. S. 2011. "Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria." Molecules 16, no. 11: 9611-9619.