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Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9520-9533; doi:10.3390/molecules16119520
Article

Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting Alkaloids from Zephyranthes concolor

1,* , 2
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1 Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, 04510, México, D.F., Mexico 2 AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria 3 Département de Chimie et Biochimie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB E1A 3E9, Canada 4 Laboratori de Retrovirologia, Fundació Irsi Caixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. 08916-Badalona, Barcelona, Spain 5 Departament de Productes Naturals, Biología Vegetal i Edafologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloids: Novel Therapeutic Perspectives)
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Abstract

The bulbs and aerial parts of Zephyranthes concolor (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook. f. (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species to Mexico, were found to contain the alkaloids chlidanthine, galanthamine, galanthamine N-oxide, lycorine, galwesine, and epinorgalanthamine. Since currently only partial and low resolution 1H-NMR data for chlidanthine acetate are available, and none for chlidanthine, its 1D and 2D high resolution 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded. Unambiguous assignations were achieved with HMBC, and HSQC experiments, and its structure was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. Minimum energy conformation for structures of chlidanthine, and its positional isomer galanthamine, were calculated by molecular modelling. Galanthamine is a well known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; therefore, the isolated alkaloids were tested for this activity. Chlidanthine and galanthamine N-oxide inhibited electric eel acetylcholinesterase (2.4 and 2.6 × 10−5 M, respectively), indicating they are about five times less potent than galanthamine, while galwesine was inactive at 10−3 M. Inhibitory activity of HIV-1 replication, and cytotoxicity of the isolated alkaloids were evaluated in human MT-4 cells; however, the alkaloids showed poor activity as compared with standard anti-HIV drugs, but most of them were not cytotoxic.
Keywords: alkaloids; chlidanthine; Zephyranthes concolor; amaryllidaceae alkaloids; chlidanthine; Zephyranthes concolor; amaryllidaceae
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Reyes-Chilpa, R.; Berkov, S.; Hernández-Ortega, S.; Jankowski, C.K.; Arseneau, S.; Clotet-Codina, I.; Esté, J.A.; Codina, C.; Viladomat, F.; Bastida, J. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting Alkaloids from Zephyranthes concolor. Molecules 2011, 16, 9520-9533.

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