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Molecules, Volume 14, Issue 3 (March 2009), Pages 904-1341

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Open AccessCorrection Publisher's Note - Pagination Error, Molecules 2009, 14(3)
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1134-1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031134
Published: 10 September 2009
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Abstract
Publisher's Note added on 10 September 2009: There is a pagination error in Molecules 2009, 14(3) with pages 1134-1144 missing. Thus, pages 1134-1144 are taken as a blank pages. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities of Dodonaea viscosa using Contact Bioautography Technique
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1332-1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031332
Received: 21 November 2008 / Revised: 18 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 26 March 2009
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crude ethanolic extract and n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of Dodonaea viscosa were analyzed for antibacterial potential against four Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and three Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli,
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The crude ethanolic extract and n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions of Dodonaea viscosa were analyzed for antibacterial potential against four Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and three Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preliminary screening showed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thin layer chromatograms of the fractions were then subjected to contact bioautography, which showed inhibition zone at different Rf values against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, indicating the presence of antibacterial components. The MIC of each fraction was determined through a 96-well micro-titer plate method. The non-viability of the organisms was ascertained by determining the MBC of the fractions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Phenylethanoid Glycosides from the Fruits of Forsythia Suspense (Thunb.) Vahl
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1324-1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031324
Received: 16 February 2009 / Revised: 11 March 2009 / Accepted: 13 March 2009 / Published: 25 March 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forsythosides H-J (1-3), three new caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides (CPGs), were isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspense (Thunb.) Vahl., together with six known phenylethanoid glycosides: Forsythoside A (4), Forsythoside F (5), Forsythoside E (6), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), phenethyl alcohol β-D-xylo-pyranosyl-(1→6)-β
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Forsythosides H-J (1-3), three new caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides (CPGs), were isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspense (Thunb.) Vahl., together with six known phenylethanoid glycosides: Forsythoside A (4), Forsythoside F (5), Forsythoside E (6), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), phenethyl alcohol β-D-xylo-pyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and calceolarioside B (9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gene Knockdowns in Adult Animals: PPMOs and Vivo-Morpholinos
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1304-1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031304
Received: 2 March 2009 / Revised: 23 March 2009 / Accepted: 24 March 2009 / Published: 25 March 2009
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antisense molecules do not readily cross cell membranes. This has limited the use of antisense to systems where techniques have been worked out to introduce the molecules into cells, such as embryos and cell cultures. Uncharged antisense bearing a group of guanidinium moieties
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Antisense molecules do not readily cross cell membranes. This has limited the use of antisense to systems where techniques have been worked out to introduce the molecules into cells, such as embryos and cell cultures. Uncharged antisense bearing a group of guanidinium moieties on either a linear peptide or dendrimer scaffold can enter cells by endocytosis and subsequently escape from endosomes into the cytosol/nuclear compartment of cells. These technologies allow systemic administration of antisense, making gene knockdowns and splice modification feasible in adult animals; this review presents examples of such animal studies. Techniques developed with PPMOs, which are an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide linked to a Morpholino oligo, can also be performed using commercially available Vivo-Morpholinos, which are eight guanidinium groups on a dendrimeric scaffold linked to a Morpholino oligo. Antisense-based techniques such as blocking translation, modifying pre-mRNA splicing, inhibiting miRNA maturation and inhibiting viral replication can be conveniently applied in adult animals by injecting PPMOs or Vivo-Morpholinos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Herbicidal Activities of Novel 4-(4-(5-methyl-3-arylisoxazol-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)piperidyl Carboxamides and Thiocarboxamides
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1288-1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031288
Received: 27 February 2009 / Revised: 12 March 2009 / Accepted: 16 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel 4-(4-(5-methyl-3-arylisoxazol-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)piperidyl carboxamides and thiocarboxamides were synthesized as potential lead compounds of inhibitors targeting D1 protease in plants. These compounds were designed on the basis of a D1 protease inhibitor hit structure identified by homology modeling and virtual screening. The
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A series of novel 4-(4-(5-methyl-3-arylisoxazol-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)piperidyl carboxamides and thiocarboxamides were synthesized as potential lead compounds of inhibitors targeting D1 protease in plants. These compounds were designed on the basis of a D1 protease inhibitor hit structure identified by homology modeling and virtual screening. The syntheses of these compounds were accomplished via a four-step procedure including the isoxazole ring formation, a-bromination of acetyl group, thiazole ring formation, and carboxamide/thiocarboxamide attachment. The in vivo herbicidal activity tests show that most compounds possess moderate to good herbicidal activities. The enzyme activity of one compound against the native spinach D1 protease exhibits a competitive inhibition. The results suggest that these compounds are indeed potential inhibitors for targeting D1 protease in plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermus thermophilus Strains Active in Purine Nucleoside Synthesis
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1279-1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031279
Received: 26 December 2008 / Revised: 25 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several strains of Thermus thermophilus were tested in order to detect purine nucleoside synthase activity using pyrimidine nucleosides as the sugar-donor and adenine or hypoxanthine as bases. High productivity values (t =1 hr) were obtained while completely avoiding adenosine-deaminase degradation of the products.
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Several strains of Thermus thermophilus were tested in order to detect purine nucleoside synthase activity using pyrimidine nucleosides as the sugar-donor and adenine or hypoxanthine as bases. High productivity values (t =1 hr) were obtained while completely avoiding adenosine-deaminase degradation of the products. N-2-deoxy-ribosyltransferase activity is described for the first time in hyperthermophilic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessReview Selenium as an Essential Micronutrient: Roles in Cell Cycle and Apoptosis
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1263-1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031263
Received: 30 January 2009 / Revised: 15 February 2009 / Accepted: 20 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and selenium deficiency is associated with several disease conditions such as immune impairment. In addition, selenium intakes that are greater than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) appear to protect against certain types of
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Selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and selenium deficiency is associated with several disease conditions such as immune impairment. In addition, selenium intakes that are greater than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) appear to protect against certain types of cancers. In humans and animals, cell proliferation and death must be regulated to maintain tissue homeostasis, and it has been well documented that numerous human diseases are directly related to the control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Thus, the elucidation of the mechanisms by which selenium regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis can lead to a better understanding of the nature of selenium’s essentiality and its role in disease prevention. This article reviews the status of knowledge concerning the effect of selenium on cell cycle and apoptosis Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Tellurium Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview 13C-NMR Data of Diterpenes Isolated from Aristolochia Species
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1245-1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031245
Received: 20 November 2008 / Revised: 11 February 2009 / Accepted: 2 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The genus Aristolochia,an important source of physiologically active compounds that belong to different chemical classes, is the subject of research in numerous pharmacological and chemical studies. This genus contains a large number of terpenoid compounds, particularly diterpenes. This work presents a compilation
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The genus Aristolochia,an important source of physiologically active compounds that belong to different chemical classes, is the subject of research in numerous pharmacological and chemical studies. This genus contains a large number of terpenoid compounds, particularly diterpenes. This work presents a compilation of the 13C-NMR data of 57 diterpenoids described between 1981 and 2007 which were isolated from Aristolochia species. The compounds are arranged skeletonwise in each section, according to their structures, i.e., clerodane, labdane, and kaurane derivatives. A brief discussion on the 13C chemical shifts of these diterpenes is also included. Full article
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Open AccessArticle X-ray and Hydrogen-bonding Properties of 1-((1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1234-1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031234
Received: 3 November 2008 / Revised: 21 January 2009 / Accepted: 20 February 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The solid state structure of 1-((1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol, C17H13N3O, shows that this Mannich base crystallizes forming intermolecular N···HO hydrogen bonds, rather than intramolecular ones. Factors contributing to this choice of hydrogen-bonding mode are discussed. The compound crystallizes
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The solid state structure of 1-((1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol, C17H13N3O, shows that this Mannich base crystallizes forming intermolecular N···HO hydrogen bonds, rather than intramolecular ones. Factors contributing to this choice of hydrogen-bonding mode are discussed. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, P21/c space group, with lattice constants: a = 11.7934(9) Å, b = 14.3002(14) Å, c = 8.4444(8) Å, β = 106.243(5) deg, V = 1367.3(2) Å3, Z = 4, F(000) = 576, R1 = 6.96%, wR2 = 11.4%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grandine A, a New Proaporphine Alkaloid from the Bark of Phoebe grandis
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1227-1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031227
Received: 23 December 2008 / Revised: 13 February 2009 / Accepted: 18 February 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stem bark of Phoebe grandis afforded one new oxoproaporphine; (–)-grandine A (1), along with six known isoquinoline alkaloids: (–)-8,9-dihydrolinearisine (2), boldine, norboldine, lauformine, scortechiniine A and scortechiniine B. In addition to that of the new compound, complete 1H- and 13C-NMR
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The stem bark of Phoebe grandis afforded one new oxoproaporphine; (–)-grandine A (1), along with six known isoquinoline alkaloids: (–)-8,9-dihydrolinearisine (2), boldine, norboldine, lauformine, scortechiniine A and scortechiniine B. In addition to that of the new compound, complete 1H- and 13C-NMR data of the tetrahydroproaporphine (–)-8,9-dihydrolinearisine (2) is also reported. The alkaloids’ structures were elucidated primarily by means of high field 1D- and 2D-NMR and HRMS spectral data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aporphines and Oxoaporphines)
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Open AccessReview Current Status of Older and New Purine Nucleoside Analogues in the Treatment of Lymphoproliferative Diseases
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1183-1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031183
Received: 6 January 2009 / Revised: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 10 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the past few years more and more new cytotoxic agents active in the treatment of hematological malignancies have been synthesized and become available for either in vitro studies or clinical trials. Among them the class of antineoplastic drugs belonging to the purine
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For the past few years more and more new cytotoxic agents active in the treatment of hematological malignancies have been synthesized and become available for either in vitro studies or clinical trials. Among them the class of antineoplastic drugs belonging to the purine nucleoside analogues group (PNAs) plays an important role. Three of them: pentostatin (DCF), cladribine (2-CdA) and fludarabine (FA) were approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Recently three novel PNAs: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine (ara-G) and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777) have been synthesized and introduced into preclinical studies and clinical trials. These agents seem to be useful mainly for the treatment of human T-cell proliferative disorders and they are currently undergoing clinical trials in lymphoid malignancies. However, there are also several studies suggesting the role of these drugs in B-cell malignancies. This review will summarize current knowledge concerning the mechanism of action, pharmacologic properties, clinical activity and toxicity of PNAs accepted for use in clinical practice, as well as new agents available for clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1171-1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031171
Received: 9 February 2009 / Revised: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 16 March 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piper ovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC–MS. The main constituents found were δ-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and γ-muurolene (13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds
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The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piper ovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC–MS. The main constituents found were δ-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and γ-muurolene (13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil and amides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis. These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 μg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 μg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 μg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parabens as Agents for Improving Crocetin Esters’ Shelf-Life in Aqueous Saffron Extracts
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1160-1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031160
Received: 26 February 2009 / Revised: 10 March 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 16 March 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of parabens on the shelf-life of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in aqueous saffron solutions was studied. Degradation of saffron crocetin esters fits a first-order kinetics model, and the results indicated that the crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) esters were more
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The effect of parabens on the shelf-life of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in aqueous saffron solutions was studied. Degradation of saffron crocetin esters fits a first-order kinetics model, and the results indicated that the crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) esters were more stable than the crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) esters regardless of whether trans and cis isomers were considered. Under all tested conditions both parabens gave good results, especially propyl paraben that showed a greater influence on the degradation rate constant, except for cis-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester and cis-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester. In presence of propyl paraben (200 mg/L), the half-life periods of trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) esterimproved considerably, up to four-fold. Special attention has been paid to the effect of propyl paraben on 46 saffrons with different crocetin ester contents. No differences were observed in terms of picrocrocin. By analysis of variance, it is noteworthy that there were differences between the mean content of crocetin esters for all analysed saffron, except for trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ring-substituted 4-Hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-ones: Preparation and Biological Activity
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1145-1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031145
Received: 4 February 2009 / Revised: 3 March 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 13 March 2009
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the study, a series of twelve ring-substituted 4-hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-one derivatives were prepared. The procedures for synthesis of the compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity and tested for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity using spinach (Spinacia oleracea
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In the study, a series of twelve ring-substituted 4-hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-one derivatives were prepared. The procedures for synthesis of the compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity and tested for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity using spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. All the synthesized compounds were also evaluated for antifungal activity using in vitro screening with eight fungal strains. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds are discussed, as well as their structure-activity relationships (SAR). Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Phosphotungstic Acid: An Efficient, Cost-effective and Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of Polysubstituted Quinolines
Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1126-1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14031126
Received: 4 January 2009 / Revised: 20 January 2009 / Accepted: 17 February 2009 / Published: 12 March 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) was used as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of polysubstituted quinolines through the Friedländer condensation of 2-aminoarylketone with carbonyl compounds, which was achieved by conventional heating under solvent-free conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Assisted Synthesis)
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