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Molecules 2009, 14(3), 1171-1182; doi:10.3390/molecules14031171
Article

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl

1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2 and 1, 4,*
1 Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil 2 Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil 3 Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil 4 Departamento de Farmácia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2009 / Revised: 27 February 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 16 March 2009
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Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piper ovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC–MS. The main constituents found were δ-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and γ-muurolene (13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil and amides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis. These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 μg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 μg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 μg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages.
Keywords: Piper ovatum Vahl; Chemical composition; Essential oil; Antimicrobial activity Piper ovatum Vahl; Chemical composition; Essential oil; Antimicrobial activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, D.R.; Endo, E.H.; Filho, B.P.D.; Nakamura, C.V.; Svidzinski, T.I.E.; De Souza, A.; Young, M.C.M.; Ueda-Nakamura, T.; Cortez, D.A.G. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl. Molecules 2009, 14, 1171-1182.

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