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Hardware, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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16 pages, 8394 KiB  
Article
Design of a Low-Cost Open-Top Chamber Facility for the Investigation of the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on Plant Growth
by Nicola Novello, Mani Naiker, Haydee Laza, Kerry B. Walsh and Sabine Tausz-Posch
Hardware 2024, 2(2), 138-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/hardware2020007 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Open-top chambers (OTCs) consist of semi-open enclosures used to investigate the impact of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on crops and larger plant communities. OTCs have lower operational costs than alternatives such as controlled environment cabinets and Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment [...] Read more.
Open-top chambers (OTCs) consist of semi-open enclosures used to investigate the impact of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on crops and larger plant communities. OTCs have lower operational costs than alternatives such as controlled environment cabinets and Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE). A low-cost design is presented for an OTC with a surface area of 1.2 m2 and a target elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] of 650 µmol mol−1 adequate for trials involving cereals or grain legumes. The elevated CO2 chambers maintained an average concentration ± standard deviation of 652 ± 37 µmol mol−1 despite wind and air turbulences, in comparison to 407 ± 10 µmol mol−1 for non-enriched chambers. Relative to ambient (non-chamber) conditions, plants in the chambers were exposed to slightly warmer conditions (2.3 °C in daylight hours; 0.6 °C during night environment). The materials’ cost for constructing the chambers was USD 560 per chamber, while the CO2 control system for four chambers dedicated to CO2-enriched conditions cost USD 5388. To maintain the concentration of 650 µmol mol−1 during daylight hours, each chamber consumed 1.38 L min−1 of CO2. This means that a size G CO2 cylinder was consumed in 8–9 days in the operation of two chambers (at USD 40). Full article
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32 pages, 11059 KiB  
Article
Designing a Laboratory Cam Profile Measuring Machine to Validate Follower Displacements
by Edward Bednarz III, Alex Abad, Jay Patel and John Seasock
Hardware 2024, 2(2), 106-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/hardware2020006 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 501
Abstract
This study presents the design, build, and evaluation of a laboratory cam profile measuring machine tailored to demonstrate the mechanical principles and applications of various cam shapes. Utilizing a diverse set of cam profiles, the machine effectively converts rotational motion into measurable linear [...] Read more.
This study presents the design, build, and evaluation of a laboratory cam profile measuring machine tailored to demonstrate the mechanical principles and applications of various cam shapes. Utilizing a diverse set of cam profiles, the machine effectively converts rotational motion into measurable linear motion, achieving a range of motion profiles, including rising, declining, steady, and instantaneous actions. Key components of the machine include an angle gauge for precise rotational measurements and a linear dial indicator for accurately gauging the cam-induced displacement. This setup facilitates the measuring of displacement, and computation of velocity and acceleration for each cam shape, offering a dynamic visual and numerical aid for engineering and design. Full article
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21 pages, 1368 KiB  
Review
Additively Manufactured Antennas and Electromagnetic Devices
by Francesco P. Chietera
Hardware 2024, 2(2), 85-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/hardware2020005 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Additive manufacturing has emerged as a transformative methodology in numerous engineering domains, with the fabrication of antennas and electromagnetic devices being a promising application area. This study presents a comprehensive review of the application of these technologies for manufacturing electromagnetic devices, offering a [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing has emerged as a transformative methodology in numerous engineering domains, with the fabrication of antennas and electromagnetic devices being a promising application area. This study presents a comprehensive review of the application of these technologies for manufacturing electromagnetic devices, offering a categorized analysis based on different types of additive manufacturing techniques. Each category is examined, and its characteristics are briefly described, highlighting not only the most innovative and significant devices fabricated using specific technologies, but also identifying their limitations and strengths. Through a dual analysis, this paper provides a deep understanding of the potential of and challenges associated with using different additive manufacturing technologies in the design and crafting of electromagnetic components. Moreover, this review offers recommendations for future studies, suggesting how the unique features of this new manufacturing paradigm could be further leveraged for breakthroughs in the electromagnetic field. Full article
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19 pages, 67956 KiB  
Article
A New RTI Portable Instrument for Surface Morphological Characterization
by Julie Lemesle and Maxence Bigerelle
Hardware 2024, 2(2), 66-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/hardware2020004 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
A new instrument using reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), named MorphoLight, has been developed for surface characterization. This instrument is designed to be adjustable to surfaces, ergonomic, and uses a combination of high-resolution imaging functions, i.e., focus stacking (FS) and high dynamic range (HDR), [...] Read more.
A new instrument using reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), named MorphoLight, has been developed for surface characterization. This instrument is designed to be adjustable to surfaces, ergonomic, and uses a combination of high-resolution imaging functions, i.e., focus stacking (FS) and high dynamic range (HDR), to improve the image quality. A topographical analysis method is proposed with the instrument. This method is an improvement of the surface gradient characterization by light reflectance (SGCLR) method. This aims to analyze slope/curvature maps, traditionally studied in RTI, but also to find the most relevant lighting position and 3D surface parameter which highlight morphological signatures on surfaces and/or discriminate surfaces. RTI measurements and analyses are performed on two zones, sky and sea, of a naval painting which have the same color palette but different painting strokes. From the statistical analysis using bootstrapping and analysis of variance (ANOVA), it is highlighted that the high-resolution images (stacked and tonemapped from HDR images) improve the image quality and make it possible to better see a difference between both painting zones. This difference is highlighted by the fractal dimension for a lighting position (θ, φ) = (30°, 225°); the fractal dimension of the sea part is higher because of the presence of larger brushstrokes and painting heaps. Full article
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