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Foss. Stud., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 3 articles

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13 pages, 1676 KiB  
Review
The Wasps (Hymenoptera) from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese and Spanish Ambers
by Sergio Álvarez-Parra and Dany Azar
Foss. Stud. 2024, 2(2), 110-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/fossils2020005 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Hymenoptera is the fourth-most diverse insect order today, including wasps, bees, bumblebees, and ants. They show a wide panoply of modes of life, such as herbivory, predation, parasitoidism, pollination, and eusociality. This group also includes a great number of extinct species from both [...] Read more.
Hymenoptera is the fourth-most diverse insect order today, including wasps, bees, bumblebees, and ants. They show a wide panoply of modes of life, such as herbivory, predation, parasitoidism, pollination, and eusociality. This group also includes a great number of extinct species from both amber and compression outcrops. Hymenopterans probably originated in the Paleozoic, although their oldest record is from the Middle or Late Triassic, and their diversity expanded since the Cretaceous. Here, we present a review of the Hymenoptera in Lower Cretaceous ambers from Lebanon (Barremian) and Spain (Albian), which is pivotal for the study of hymenopteran evolution. Hymenoptera in Lebanese ambers are represented by 32 species in 22 genera within 15 families, while in Spanish ambers, they correspond to 49 species in 40 genera within 18 families. Most of these species belong to the ‘Parasitica’, and only a few species have been assigned to the Aculeata. The group ‘Symphyta’ is represented by one species in Spanish amber. The paleobiogeography and possible paleobiologies of the species in these ambers are reviewed. Furthermore, checklists for all Hymenoptera species in Lebanese and Spanish ambers are provided. Full article
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18 pages, 27267 KiB  
Article
When Abnormality Becomes Perennial in a Reduced Population: The Case of Altudostephanus longicostis gen. et sp. nov. (Valanginian Ammonites, South-Eastern France)
by Didier Bert, Stéphane Bersac, Bernard Beltran and Léon Canut
Foss. Stud. 2024, 2(2), 92-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fossils2020004 - 25 May 2024
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The discovery of the new ammonite Altudostephanus longicostis gen. et sp. nov. around the lower/upper Valanginian boundary (Lower Cretaceous) with a true longitudinal ribs pattern oriented in the direction of coiling is reported here for the first time for the Cretaceous. This character [...] Read more.
The discovery of the new ammonite Altudostephanus longicostis gen. et sp. nov. around the lower/upper Valanginian boundary (Lower Cretaceous) with a true longitudinal ribs pattern oriented in the direction of coiling is reported here for the first time for the Cretaceous. This character rises questions as this type of ornamentation is mainly represented in the Paleozoic or old Mesozoic taxa. Its study shows that it is not a ‘shell accident’ and that it belongs to a particular lineage of Olcostephaninae, in a restricted geographical area and in a progenetic evolutionary context derived from Olcostephanus, which justifies the introduction of the new monophyletic genus Altudostephanus gen. nov. The discovery of a specimen of Passendorferia sp. (Oxfordian, Upper Jurassic) with the same pattern allows us to consider that this capacity could have a genetic cause. It seems that the fixation of this character, otherwise strongly recessive, in A. longicostis gen. et sp. nov. could take place thanks to a founder effect and the drastic numerical reduction in the population. The geological reference section PIG5 (Moriez area, South-Eastern France) is described, and the problem of the conservation of ‘pyritic’ s.l. ammonites is addressed with a proposed methodology allowing their long-term conservation. Full article
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15 pages, 4439 KiB  
Article
The Life and Death of Jamoytius kerwoodi White; A Silurian Jawless Nektonic Herbivore?
by Michael E. Brookfield
Foss. Stud. 2024, 2(2), 77-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/fossils2020003 - 9 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Jamoytius kerwoodi, is a primitive, eel-like jawless vertebrate found uniquely in an Early Silurian (Llandovery epoch; 444–433 Ma) horizon near Lesmahagow, Scotland. This species is a rare component of a low-diversity dominantly nektonic detritus-feeding and herbivorous fauna living over an anoxic bottom [...] Read more.
Jamoytius kerwoodi, is a primitive, eel-like jawless vertebrate found uniquely in an Early Silurian (Llandovery epoch; 444–433 Ma) horizon near Lesmahagow, Scotland. This species is a rare component of a low-diversity dominantly nektonic detritus-feeding and herbivorous fauna living over an anoxic bottom and is found at the transition from a marine-influenced, probably brackish-water, deep-water basin to a shallower-water, less saline and likely freshwater basin. In the absence of true teeth, Jamoytius was probably a detritivore or herbivore feeding on Dictyocaris. Jamoytius may have a common ancestor with living lampreys, especially as their ectoparasitic mode of life might have evolved from ancestral detritivores or herbivores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Problems and Hypotheses in Palaeontology)
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