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J. Vasc. Dis., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 6 articles

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23 pages, 2057 KiB  
Review
Neurointerventional Treatment of Vein of Galen Malformation (VGM): A Structured Review with a Proposal for the Comparison of Outcome Quality
by Friedhelm Brassel, Martin Schlunz-Hendann, Martin Scholz, Robert Lucaciu, Chunfu Fan, Vitali Koch, Dominik Grieb, Francisco Brevis Nunez, Simone Schwarz and Christof M. Sommer
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 236-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020018 - 1 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Background: Vein of Galen malformation (VGM) is a congenital intracranial vascular anomaly consisting of arteriovenous fistulas and/or malformations between various arterial feeders and the median prosencephalic vein of Markowski (MPV). Despite its rare occurrence, VGM is of particular clinical relevance, as the excessive [...] Read more.
Background: Vein of Galen malformation (VGM) is a congenital intracranial vascular anomaly consisting of arteriovenous fistulas and/or malformations between various arterial feeders and the median prosencephalic vein of Markowski (MPV). Despite its rare occurrence, VGM is of particular clinical relevance, as the excessive intracranial shunt volume leads to high mortality without appropriate treatment. Methods: The objective of this article is to review the published data on neurointerventional treatment and compare outcome quality in the included studies. Eight studies were included and synthesized. One study was multicentric and the rest were retrospective monocentric (level 4 evidence studies according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine). Results: The total number of included patients was 480 and patient age ranged from 1 day to 18 years. Mild or severe heart failure, hydrocephalus, and other reasons led to the indication for neurointerventional treatment, which was performed in all studies in the form of embolization. Under consideration of the introduced semiquantitative multidimensional scoring system, the highest total score, i.e., the best outcome quality, was found for the study “Houston” 2002–2018 (19 points) and the study “Duisburg” 2001–2010 (19 points). Conclusions: Neurointerventional treatment represents the essential pillar in the interdisciplinary management of patients with VGM, although standardization is lacking—based on the results of the structured review. As complementary treatments, pediatric critical care is mandatory and includes medical hemodynamic stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Neurocritical Care)
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6 pages, 908 KiB  
Communication
Clinical Use of Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Reversal: Consideration for Vascular Surgeons
by Alan Houben, Vincent Bonhomme and Marc Senard
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 230-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020017 - 1 Jun 2023
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Abstract
Since their first approval in 2010, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become attractive for anticoagulant treatment. DOACs are indicated for the prevention and treatment of several cardiovascular conditions and have now emerged as leading therapeutic options. Every year, large number of patients receiving [...] Read more.
Since their first approval in 2010, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become attractive for anticoagulant treatment. DOACs are indicated for the prevention and treatment of several cardiovascular conditions and have now emerged as leading therapeutic options. Every year, large number of patients receiving DOACs routinely are scheduled for invasive surgical procedures and need specific perioperative management. Moreover, recently published trials have provided arguments for a larger future use of DOACs, including during the postoperative period after vascular surgery and for high-risk cardiovascular patients. In this communication, we discuss the perioperative management of DOACs for patients undergoing vascular surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Diseases)
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0 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Intracranial Aneurysms: Relevance of Superposed Blood Pulse Waves and Tobacco Smoke?
by Ulrich Barz, Almut Schreiber and Helmut Barz
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 222-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020016 - 4 May 2023
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Abstract
Background: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are found in around 3–4% of elderly people. The authors attempt to answer why IAs develop exclusively in the circle of Willis (CW) and why IAs in the frontal cerebral arteries are unusually frequent in men. Methods: The location [...] Read more.
Background: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are found in around 3–4% of elderly people. The authors attempt to answer why IAs develop exclusively in the circle of Willis (CW) and why IAs in the frontal cerebral arteries are unusually frequent in men. Methods: The location and frequency of IAs were analyzed using relevant publications (MEDLINE and PubMed). Results: It is suggested that superposed blood pulse waves may have an influence on the development of IAs. The superposition of blood pulse waves is caused by the meeting of the bilateral cerebral arteries in the CW. The predominance of IAs in women is striking (about 1.7:1). However, IAs in the anterior cerebral arteries and anterior communicating artery are significantly more common in men than in women (approximately 1.8:1). The authors hypothesize that greater nicotine abuse in men may explain this phenomenon. Cigarette smoke apparently reaches the anterior cerebral arteries via the olfactory pathway. Conclusion: It seems possible that superposed pulse waves are a substantial factor in the occurrence of IAs. The toxic effects of tobacco smoke appear to have greater impact on IA development than the sex-specific influences that are responsible for the predominance of IAs in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Peripheral Vascular Diseases)
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10 pages, 1817 KiB  
Case Report
Alternative Approaches to Osteoarthritis-Related Knee Pain: Transvenous Arteriovenous Malformation Embolization
by Frank A. Cusimano, Martyna Czarnik, Nicole Ciuffo, Adriana Vaglica, Christine Mitchell, Christa Ziffer, Glenys Hernandez, Nicole Gentile, Anthony Watkins, Adam Tonis and David A. Greuner
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 212-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020015 - 5 Apr 2023
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Abstract
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is an inflammatory joint disorder of the cartilage, joint capsule, synovium, and surrounding bone. Intraarticular inflammation induces angiogenesis leading to pain and inflammation. Research suggests a relationship between patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and venous insufficiency [...] Read more.
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is an inflammatory joint disorder of the cartilage, joint capsule, synovium, and surrounding bone. Intraarticular inflammation induces angiogenesis leading to pain and inflammation. Research suggests a relationship between patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and venous insufficiency or contributing arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Similar to genicular artery embolization (GAE), transvenous or transmalformation cannulation and embolization offers a minimally invasive treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis. Case presentations: Here, we present the successful treatment of OA of the knee using direct puncture transmalformation cannulation and embolization in five patients. Direct puncture, a technique used to embolize peripheral AVMs, is a safe, less invasive method for the treatment of osteoarthritis with associated AVMs. Conclusions: For patients with OA-related knee pain and associated AVMs, the advancement of endovascular techniques offers alternative approaches to the treatment of mild to moderate OA. Direct puncture and transmalformation cannulation and embolization reduce the risk of intra- and post-operative complications, improve recovery time, and minimize operating time and operating costs. In review of the literature, this is one of the first published reports describing the use of direct puncture transvenous or transmalformation cannulation and embolization to treat OA-related pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Peripheral Vascular Diseases)
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15 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
Neurocognitive Sequelae and Rehabilitation after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Optimizing Outcomes
by Divine C. Nwafor, Brandon D. Kirby, Jacob D. Ralston, Mark A. Colantonio, Elochukwu Ibekwe and Brandon Lucke-Wold
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 197-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020014 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4786
Abstract
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical emergency that requires immediate intervention. The etiology varies between cases; however, rupture of an intracranial aneurysm accounts for 80% of medical emergencies. Early intervention and treatment are essential to prevent long-term complications. Over the years, treatment of [...] Read more.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical emergency that requires immediate intervention. The etiology varies between cases; however, rupture of an intracranial aneurysm accounts for 80% of medical emergencies. Early intervention and treatment are essential to prevent long-term complications. Over the years, treatment of SAH has drastically improved, which is responsible for the rapid rise in SAH survivors. Post-SAH, a significant number of patients exhibit impairments in memory and executive function and report high rates of depression and anxiety that ultimately affect daily living, return to work, and quality of life. Given the rise in SAH survivors, rehabilitation post-SAH to optimize patient outcomes becomes crucial. The review addresses the current rehabilitative strategies to combat the neurocognitive and behavioral issues that may arise following SAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurovascular Diseases)
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9 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
The Association between the Hypochloremia and Mortality in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
by Jinping Zhang, Zhenze Yu, Binghua Zhu and Jianxin Ma
J. Vasc. Dis. 2023, 2(2), 188-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jvd2020013 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Objective: To explore the association between hypochloremia and mortality in critically ill patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV (MIMIC-IV) database of patients with CHF diagnosed according to ICD-9 [...] Read more.
Objective: To explore the association between hypochloremia and mortality in critically ill patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV (MIMIC-IV) database of patients with CHF diagnosed according to ICD-9 or ICD-10. Patients were divided into three groups according to serum chloride values. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between hypochloremia and short-term mortality. Results: A total of 2103 patients with CHF were enrolled in our study. The 30-day mortality was 6.7%. After adjusting for confounders, the 30-day mortality risks of the hypochloremia group were significantly higher than that of the group with normal serum chloride (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.27–3.92, p = 0.005). Hypochloremia was consistently associated with increased mortality in patients that were older or had sepsis. Conclusion: Hypochloremia is associated with increased mortality in intensive care patients critically ill with CHF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Diseases)
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