#
A Rotating Model of a Light Speed Expanding Hubble-Hawking Universe^{ †}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- (1)
- From a quantum cosmology [5] point of view, in a theoretical approach, spin or rotation can be given a chance in developing quantum models of cosmology.
- (2)
- The current model of Lambda cosmology [6] is badly failing in incorporating quantum gravity concepts.
- (3)
- Very few cosmologists are working on quantum cosmology models.
- (4)
- Clearly speaking, no cosmologist has a clear vision of quantum models of cosmology.

- (1)
- An important point to be noted is that to have rotation, the universe should have a closed or positive curvature. Two recent technical papers [7,8] published in two very high impact journals seem to support a closed universe. In this context, we would like to recall the views of Di Valentino, Melchiorri and Silk [7]. According to their analysis and interpretation, the observed enhanced lensing amplitude of cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained with a positive curvature of the universe at a 99% confidence level. Proceeding further, according to Will Handley [8], in light of the inconsistency between Planck, CMB lensing and BAO data in the context of curved universes, cosmologists can no longer conclude that observations support a flat universe.
- (2)
- Hubble’s observations [9] can also be studied with rotating and expanding models of cosmology.
- (3)
- In a rotating frame, quantitatively Hubble’s law resembles a cosmic light speed rotation concept.
- (4)
- The general theory of relativity is no way against cosmic rotation [10].
- (5)
- Without a radial in-flow of matter in all directions towards one specific point, one cannot expect a big crunch, and without a big crunch one cannot expect a big bang. Really, if there was a “big bang” in the past, with reference to the formation of the big bang as predicted by GTR and with reference to the cosmic rate of expansion that might have taken place simultaneously in all directions at a “naturally selected rate” about the point of the big bang, the “point” of the big bang can be considered as the characteristic reference point of cosmic expansion in all directions. Thinking in this way, either the point of the big bang or baby Planck ball can be considered as a possible centre of cosmic evolution.
- (6)
- If the observed universe is assumed to be associated with only one big bang, then the ‘point of big bang’ can certainly be considered as the characteristic reference point of cosmic evolution in all directions.
- (7)
- If the currently believed cosmic big bang is really a ‘singularity’, it seems more logical to depend on the Planck scale rather than the big bang. It may be noted that, in general, gravitational singularities are not clear about “Where, When and How” as essential points that are believed to be the basics of developing any workable physical model.
- (8)
- Modern cosmological observations are providing strong evidence for the existence of mysterious rotational features of large cosmic filaments [11].
- (9)
- The current Hubble’s constant can be considered as a limiting magnitude of current cosmic angular velocity. Similarly, light speed can be considered as a limiting magnitude of current cosmic rotation speed.
- (10)
- If it is really important to understand the radical nature of current cosmic acceleration [12], based on light speed expansion, it can be understood as follows. As time is passing, to sustain continuous light speed expansion, galaxies maintain higher acceleration near to the cosmic centre and lower acceleration near to the cosmic boundary. Clearly speaking, being higher in magnitude near to the cosmic centre, galactic acceleration gradually disappears at the cosmic boundary. In a mathematical form, for the current case, it can be expressed as ${\left({a}_{r}\right)}_{0}=\left[c-{\left({v}_{r}\right)}_{0}\right]{H}_{0}$ where $r$, $\left({v}_{r}\right)$ and $\left({a}_{r}\right)$ represent galactic distance, receding speed and acceleration from the cosmic centre, respectively.

## 2. Light Speed Expanding Hubble–Hawking Universe

#### 2.1. Need for Considering Light Speed Expansion

- (1)
- All cosmological observations and physical studies and research are being accomplished with ‘light speed’ only;
- (2)
- (3)
- So far, no single experiment or no single observation has confirmed super luminal physical results;
- (4)
- It is well confirmed that gravitons are moving with the speed of light;
- (5)
- In one sentence, ‘without light’, there is no cosmology and there is no physics.

#### 2.2. Strange Coincidences and Their Impact on Lambda Cosmology

- (1)
- Theoretically, distance travelled by a photon in 13.8 billion years of cosmic age is 1.3 × 10
^{26}m and is equal to the currently believed Hubble radius ${R}_{0}\cong \left(c/{H}_{0}\right).$ Based on this coincidence, and considering Planck scale as the origin, it seems logical to consider the cosmic time-distance scale as ${R}_{t}-{R}_{pl}\cong ct$ where ${R}_{pl},{R}_{t}$ represent Planck scale cosmic radius and radius at any time $t.$ - (2)
- Considering the product of currently believed cosmic critical density, ${\rho}_{0}\cong \left(3{H}_{0}^{2}/8\pi G\right)$, and Hubble volume, ${V}_{0}\cong \left(4\pi /3\right){\left(c/{H}_{0}\right)}^{3}$, it is possible to show that ${M}_{0}\cong \left({c}^{3}/2G{H}_{0}\right).$ Based on this relation, from the beginning of Planck scale, cosmic radius can be expressed as ${R}_{t}\cong \left(c/{H}_{t}\right)\cong 2G{M}_{t}/{c}^{2}.$
- (3)
- Following Hawking’s black hole temperature formula [26], the current cosmic temperature can be expressed as ${T}_{0}\cong \frac{\hslash {c}^{3}}{8\pi {k}_{B}G\sqrt{{M}_{pl}{M}_{0}}}$ or ${T}_{0}\cong \frac{\hslash \sqrt{{H}_{0}{H}_{pl}}}{4\pi {k}_{B}}$ where ${T}_{0}\cong 2.72548\text{}\mathrm{K}$ and ${H}_{0}\cong 66.89\text{}\mathrm{km}/\mathrm{sec}/\mathrm{Mpc}.$ Based on this relation, from the beginning of Planck scale, cosmic temperature can be expressed as ${T}_{t}\cong \frac{\hslash {c}^{3}}{8\pi {k}_{B}G\sqrt{{M}_{pl}{M}_{t}}}\cong \frac{\hslash \sqrt{{H}_{t}{H}_{pl}}}{4\pi {k}_{B}}$ where ${M}_{t}\cong \frac{{c}^{3}}{2G{H}_{t}},$${M}_{pl}\cong \sqrt{\frac{\hslash c}{G}}$ and ${H}_{pl}\cong \frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{{c}^{5}}{G\hslash}}.$
- (4)
- The proposed cosmic temperature relation can be derived with the following three hypothetical conditions: $\frac{G{M}_{t}{M}_{pl}}{{r}_{t}^{2}}\cong \left(\frac{{c}^{4}}{8\pi G}\right);\text{}{r}_{t}\cong \left(\frac{2.898\times {10}^{-3}}{2\pi {T}_{t}}\right)\text{}\mathrm{and}\text{}{M}_{t}\cong \left(\frac{{c}^{3}}{2G{H}_{t}}\right)$ where Planck mass and the Universe are being treated as ‘point particles’. The derived relation is ${T}_{t}\cong \frac{\hslash {c}^{3}}{24.891{k}_{B}G\sqrt{{M}_{pl}{M}_{t}}}$ and the denominator coefficient 24.891 is very close to $8\pi \cong 25.13274$.
- (5)
- The Lambda model of cosmic age for (1+ z) = 1100 can be fitted accurately with $t\cong {\left(\frac{1}{1+z}\right)}^{\frac{3}{2}}\left(\frac{1}{{H}_{0}}\right)\cong \left(\frac{\sqrt{1+z}}{{H}_{t}}\right)$ where ${H}_{t}\cong \frac{{c}^{3}}{2G{M}_{t}}\cong \left(\frac{1}{{H}_{pl}}\right){\left(\frac{4\pi {k}_{B}{T}_{t}}{\hslash}\right)}^{2}\cong {\left(1+z\right)}^{2}{H}_{0}.$
- (6)
- The currently believed Baryon acoustic bubble radius [19,21] can be fitted with ${\left({R}_{BAO}\right)}_{0}\cong \sqrt{\frac{{T}_{0}}{{T}_{\mathrm{Recombination}}}}\ast \left(\frac{c}{{H}_{0}}\right)\cong \sqrt{\frac{2.725\text{}\mathrm{K}}{3000\text{}\mathrm{K}}}\ast \left(\frac{c}{{H}_{0}}\right)\cong \frac{c}{{H}_{{}_{\mathrm{Recomb}}}^{1/4}{H}_{0}^{3/4}}\cong 135\text{}\mathrm{Mpc}.$
- (7)
- The currently believed cosmic red shift can also be defined as ${z}_{new}\cong \frac{{\lambda}_{Observed}-{\lambda}_{Lab}}{{\lambda}_{Observed}}\cong 1-\frac{{\lambda}_{Lab}}{{\lambda}_{Observed}}\cong \frac{z}{z+1}.$ Figure 1 compares galactic light travel distances according to our new definition, ${d}_{G}\cong \left({z}_{new}\right)\left(c/{H}_{0}\right)$ (red curve), and the conventional formula connected with dark energy density and other density fractions (green curve).For verification, readers are encouraged to visit these two URLs: http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/cosmodis.c (accessed on 17 February 2023) and https://cosmocalc.icrar.org/ (accessed on 17 February 2023). By considering ${z}_{new}c$ as the receding speed of the galaxy, Hubble’s law [9] can be expressed as ${v}_{G}\cong {H}_{0}{d}_{G}.$ Conceptually, this relationship resembles cosmic light speed rotation. We are working in this direction.

## 3. Our Four Basic Assumptions

- (1)
- We emphasize the point that, without a radial in-flow of matter in all directions towards any one specific point, it may not be possible to have a big crunch and discussions on a centre-less universe having a big bang or big bounce seem to be meaningless;
- (2)

**Assumption 1.**

**Assumption 2.**

**Assumption 3.**

**Assumption 4.**

## 4. Discussion

- (1)
- Galaxies seem to follow an outward spiral path;
- (2)
- Galaxies can be seemed to be arranged in a systematic order;
- (3)
- Even though the present universe is believed to be accelerating, as the current expansion rate is very small, an increase in the separation distance between neighbouring galaxies seems to be negligible. Hence, the distance between neighbouring galaxies seems to be approximately fixed.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.
A Rotating Model of a Light Speed Expanding Hubble-Hawking Universe. *Phys. Sci. Forum* **2023**, *7*, 43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ECU2023-14065

**AMA Style**

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S.
A Rotating Model of a Light Speed Expanding Hubble-Hawking Universe. *Physical Sciences Forum*. 2023; 7(1):43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ECU2023-14065

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Seshavatharam, U. V. Satya, and S. Lakshminarayana.
2023. "A Rotating Model of a Light Speed Expanding Hubble-Hawking Universe" *Physical Sciences Forum* 7, no. 1: 43.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ECU2023-14065