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The Reuse of Food By-Products to Formulate Enriched Foods †

Maria Marziliano
Amalia Conte
* and
Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Foods—Future Foods and Food Technologies for a Sustainable World, 15–30 October 2021; Available online:
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6(1), 58;
Published: 13 October 2021


During the production process, many foods generate by-products, which become food waste and have environmental and economic consequences. These by-products are rich in bioactive compounds, so they could be reused. With this in mind, to embrace the concept of a circular economy, waste could be turned into new raw materials. This review focuses on the ability to recycle by-products in new foods using innovative technologies such as zero-waste, and by reusing the waste parts of foods. The aims of the techniques analyzed in this study are to assess food functionalization. The final food products obtained through the addition of by-products had improved nutritional, technological and sensory characteristics, and should be recognized as sustainable foods. This overview conducts a critical analysis of the development of the scientific literature available, to date, on the reuse of food by-products to formulate enriched foods. First, a series of case studies is shown in which food is produced using the zero-waste approach; then, a wide range of case studies related to various food supply chains are discussed. In these last examples by-products generated from industrial processes are partially reused in new foods. The following food groups and industries are analyzed: fruit and vegetable products, the coffee industry, alcoholic beverages (wine and beer), the oil industry, the dairy industry, the by-products of legumes and cereals, and the fishing industry.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.C. and M.A.D.N.; methodology, A.C.; formal analysis, M.M..; data curation, M.A.D.N.; writing—original draft preparation, M.M.; writing—review and editing, A.C.; supervision, A.C.; project administration, A.C. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marziliano, M.; Conte, A.; Del Nobile, M.A. The Reuse of Food By-Products to Formulate Enriched Foods. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6, 58.

AMA Style

Marziliano M, Conte A, Del Nobile MA. The Reuse of Food By-Products to Formulate Enriched Foods. Biology and Life Sciences Forum. 2021; 6(1):58.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marziliano, Maria, Amalia Conte, and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile. 2021. "The Reuse of Food By-Products to Formulate Enriched Foods" Biology and Life Sciences Forum 6, no. 1: 58.

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