Pharmacogenetics (PGx) is an emerging field of pharmacology focusing on how gene variations affect the patient’s response to treatment. Pharmacogenetics is a promising tool to optimize the selection and dosing of medications, including urate-lowering therapies (ULTs) among patients with gout. The global prevalence of gout is rising, and it disproportionately affects specific racial groups and individuals with select socioeconomic status. Genetic and experimental findings have provided evidence that genetic polymorphisms associated with serum urate pathology are also of pharmacogenetic interest. Patients with gout present with several comorbidities, warranting the use of several acute and long-term medications that increase their pill burden and the risk of adverse drug events. Implementing PGx testing can identify individuals who are more or less likely to benefit from a given treatment, improve medication adherence, and reduce pill burden. The purpose of this non-systematic review was to evaluate the contemporary evidence for PGx use in gout management, especially treatment modalities associated with specific genetic polymorphisms that could impact medication safety and efficacy. Strong evidence suggests that individuals carrying the HLA-B*58:01
allele are at a higher risk of serious and life-threatening skin reactions when taking allopurinol. Additionally, racial disparities in the frequency of HLA-B*58:01
warrant genetic screening in high-risk populations, specifically some Asian subgroups and African Americans. Individuals that are G6PD
-deficient can develop hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia with pegloticase and probenecid use. Patients with the less active form of the drug-metabolizing CYP2C9 are at higher risk for NSAID-related upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Emerging evidence of clinically significant drug-gene pairs among various gout therapies is growing. Genes found to modulate the response to allopurinol include AOX, ABCG2,
. Meanwhile, UGT1A
1 appears to modulate the response to Febuxostat. While CYP2C9
may modulate the toxicity of benzbromarone, SLC22A12
were found to modulate the response to both benzbromarone and probenecid. The genes CYP2D6
, gene cluster (rs6916345 G>A), and SEPHS1
were recently reported to modulate the safety and efficacy of colchicine. Finally, HCG22
are linked with the response to corticosteroid and anakinra, respectively. This review examines and synthesizes the most current level of evidence for using PGx to maximize gout pharmacotherapy.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.