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J. Ageing Longev., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2021) – 6 articles

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12 pages, 407 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Risk Factors for Dementia Incidence Based on Previous Questionnaire Results of Specific Health Checkups in Japan
by Yoh Tamaki, Yoshimune Hiratsuka and Toshiro Kumakawa
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 48-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010006 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
The prevalence of dementia is rapidly increasing worldwide, and its treatment and prevention are a health concern. The prevention of dementia requires the identification of risk factors through longitudinal studies of lifestyle. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for [...] Read more.
The prevalence of dementia is rapidly increasing worldwide, and its treatment and prevention are a health concern. The prevention of dementia requires the identification of risk factors through longitudinal studies of lifestyle. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for the development of dementia in Japan and to clarify their primary care strategies. We analyzed the relationship between the cognitive ability level determined by the survey of long-term care certification and the past questionnaire results of a specific health examination in Japan 10 years ago. To analyze the risk factors for developing dementia, multivariate analysis was used, which showed that residents who gained more than 10 kg since reaching 20 years of age had a significantly lower risk of developing dementia. Regarding the “start of lifestyle modifications” question, those who answered “already started” had a significantly lower risk than those who answered “no plan to improve”. Conversely, residents receiving insulin injections or oral hypoglycemic agents were at a significantly higher risk of developing dementia based on the results of the questionnaire of the health checkups surveyed 10 years prior. Full article
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12 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Multimorbidity and Anxiety Symptoms among Adults Aged 50 Years and Over from Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries
by Lee Smith, Guillermo F. López Sánchez, Jae Il Shin, Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Karel Kostev, Louis Jacob, Hans Oh, Felipe Schuch, Laurie Butler, Yvonne Barnett, Christopher Tejun Law and Ai Koyanagi
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 36-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010005 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3732
Abstract
Currently, there are limited data on the association between multimorbidity (i.e., ≥ 2 chronic conditions) and anxiety, especially among the older population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the association between multimorbidity and [...] Read more.
Currently, there are limited data on the association between multimorbidity (i.e., ≥ 2 chronic conditions) and anxiety, especially among the older population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the association between multimorbidity and anxiety symptoms in a large sample of adults aged ≥ 50 years from six LMICs (China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, South Africa). Cross-sectional, nationally representative, community-based data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) were analysed. A total of 11 chronic physical conditions were assessed. Anxiety symptoms referred to extreme/severe problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analyses were conducted. Data on 34,129 adults aged ≥ 50 years were analysed (mean (SD) age 62.4 (16.0) years; 52.1% females). Compared with no chronic conditions, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 chronic conditions were significantly associated with 1.47 (95% CI = 1.08–1.98), 2.46 (95% CI = 1.74–3.47), 3.04 (95% CI = 2.15–4.30), and 4.70 (95% CI = 2.99–7.38) times higher odds of anxiety symptoms, respectively. A country-wise analysis showed that multimorbidity was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms in all six countries (OR = 1.78–12.39) with the overall estimate based on a meta-analysis being OR = 2.29 (95% CI = 1.71–3.07). Multimorbidity was associated with higher odds of anxiety symptoms among older adults in LMICs. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to assess the temporal associations and mechanisms underlying this association. Full article
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12 pages, 484 KiB  
Article
Stressful Life Events and Late-Life Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area
by Gabriella C. Dong and Mengting Li
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 24-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010004 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
The majority of studies on stressful life events focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, while less is known about whether the cumulative exposure to stressful life events over the life course will deteriorate cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the association [...] Read more.
The majority of studies on stressful life events focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, while less is known about whether the cumulative exposure to stressful life events over the life course will deteriorate cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the association between lifetime stressful life events and cognitive function in an immigrant population. The data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of 3125 U.S. Chinese older adults in 2017–2019. Twelve types of stressful life events were assessed: physical assault, residential fires, sexual assault, miscarriage, abortion, imprisonment, being falsely accused, divorce, death of a loved one, being robbed, experiencing cancer, and being homeless. Cognitive function was measured through global cognition, episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Linear regression was performed. Older adults who experienced a higher number of life events were associated with higher global cognition (b = 0.11, SE = 0.01, p < 0.001), episodic memory (b = 0.14, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001), working memory (b = 0.17, SE = 0.03, p < 0.001), processing speed (b = 1.92, SE = 0.18, p < 0.001), and MMSE (b = 0.29, SE = 0.07, p < 0.001), while controlling for age, gender, income, education, medical comorbidities, ADL, and depressive symptoms. In contrast with earlier studies, we identified the positive relationships between aggregate and individual life events and cognition. Older adults who had prior experience with stressful life events could demonstrate an advantage over those without such experiences. In addition, older adults who experienced life event(s) during adulthood and old age are associated with higher cognitive function. Further studies could investigate how individuals respond to stressful life events and how the underlying resilience mechanism would promote cognitive function. Full article
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13 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity Behaviour in 50- to 74-Year-Olds: Differences between Employed and Retired Individuals
by Karl Spiteri, John Xerri de Caro, Kathleen England, Neville Calleja, Lee Smith, Kate Grafton and David R. Broom
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 11-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010003 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
(1) Objectives: The study aimed to examine data from Malta’s Health Interview Survey (HIS) to assess differences between persons in employment and those retired, across different time periods. (2) Methods: A repeat cross-sectional design was adopted. Data that were collected over a period [...] Read more.
(1) Objectives: The study aimed to examine data from Malta’s Health Interview Survey (HIS) to assess differences between persons in employment and those retired, across different time periods. (2) Methods: A repeat cross-sectional design was adopted. Data that were collected over a period of 12 years included three cross-sectional HIS waves (2002, 2008 and 2014). Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using multilevel analysis. (3) Results: In total, 4690 participants between the ages of 50 and 74 years provided data on physical activity (PA). A statistical difference was found between those employed and retired, with the latter undertaking less PA MET min per week in 2002 and 2008. There was no difference in 2014. When adjusting for covariates, people in employment carried out less PA MET min per week (OR-0.16–−0.02) compared to retired individuals. Using multilevel modelling, this study shows that individual factors such BMI and long-standing illness are predictors of PA behaviour as opposed to time trends. (4) Conclusion: Retirement can increase PA measured in MET minutes per week. Individual factors such as BMI, long-standing health problems and self-rated health could be causing the higher levels seen in the employed population during the studied period. Full article
8 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
Changes in Daily Life Satisfaction among Community Dwelling Elderly during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan
by Akira Ishida and Emiko Ishida
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 3-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010002 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 3373
Abstract
Previous studies pointed out that the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a lesser effect on elderly people compared to their younger counterparts. However, a limited number of studies have analyzed the effects of COVID-19 on the psychological aspects of the [...] Read more.
Previous studies pointed out that the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a lesser effect on elderly people compared to their younger counterparts. However, a limited number of studies have analyzed the effects of COVID-19 on the psychological aspects of the elderly using longitudinal data. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to clarify the changes in self-rated overall daily life satisfaction among community dwelling elderly in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the longitudinal data of 5176 individuals aged 15 years and older from the first and second internet surveys on “Changes in Daily Life Awareness and Behavior under the Influence of the New Coronavirus Infection” conducted by the Cabinet Office of Japan. The estimation result of the mixed-effects model indicated that elderly people were more adversely affected by the first wave of the pandemic (May 2020) compared to their younger counterparts. However, by the beginning of the third wave (December 2020), they had largely recovered to the same level as that of before the COVID-19 pandemic, which suggested that the elderly managed to cope with psychological distress to some extent during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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2 pages, 495 KiB  
Editorial
The Journal of Ageing and Longevity: Taking a Holistic View of the Human Healthspan
by Mark A. Tully and Graham P. Pawelec
J. Ageing Longev. 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jal1010001 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 3461
Abstract
It is our pleasure to inaugurate the new open access journal, the Journal of Ageing and Longevity (JAL, ISSN 2673-9259) [...] Full article
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