A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration
- Section 2 presents overviews of 5G-TN and 5G-NTN with emphasis on a high-level understanding of 5G technologies and key 5G system components—These overviews provide some insights into 5G functions related to SATis5 architectures described in the subsequent sections;
- Section 3 captures existing SATis5 survey results with the goal to understand (i) possible commercial and defense SATis5 architectures, (ii) the proposed commercial SATis5 architecture roadmaps, and (iii) associated technical challenges;
- Section 4 presents an overview of recent and existing commercial SATis5 Testbeds and projects available in the public domain;
- Section 5 describes an overview of recent and existing defense SATis5 Testbeds and projects available in the public domain;
- Section 6 discusses and provides our SATis5 architecture outlooks and associated problems and challenges for commercial and defense applications; and
2. An Overview of 5G Terrestrial and Non-Terrestrial Networks
- Extreme broadband speed using “enhanced mobile broadband” (eMBB) and millimeter-wave technologies’
- Massive multiple-input and multiple-output antenna array and state-of-the-art beamforming technologies’
- “Massive machine-type communications” (mMTC) for consumer and industrial Internet-of-Thing (IoT), and industry 4.0 “mission-critical machine-to-machine” (MC-M2M)’
- “Ultra-reliable and ultralow latency communications” (uRLLC) for “vehicle-to-vehicle” (V2V) and “vehicle-to-infrastructure” (V2I) communications and autonomous driving’
- Non-terrestrial network (NTN) for communication systems that are to be integrated into the 5G systems and networks, including satellites, UAVs, and/or HAPs. This review focuses on the 5G-NTN using GEO/LEO satellites. An overview of current work on “IoT and UAV integration in 5G hybrid terrestrial-and-satellite networks” is also provided in Section 4.
- gNB: is defined as gNodeB, which is the 3GPP standard terminology for a 5G wireless base station that transmits and receives communications between the user equipment (UE) and the mobile network;
- NGC: also known as Next-Generation Core Network (NGCN), which is the 3GPP standard terminology for 5G wireless next-generation core network. As defined by 3GPP, the NGC is part of the 5G network providing services to mobile subscribers through the “radio access network” (RAN). It is also the gateway to other networks, for instance to the public switched telephone or to public clouds;
- RAN: RAN is the 3GPP standard terminology that is defined as a network that is part of the 5G network that connects (i) UE to other parts of a mobile network via a radio connection, and (ii) UE to the core network.
3. Survey of Existing 5G Satellite Integration (SATis5) and Associated Challenges
3.1. Overview of SATis5 Architectures
- eMBB Satellite Use Case:
- Backhauling and Tower Feed (BATF): As defined in , the satellite provides a matching role by backhauling the traffic load from the edge of the 5G network or broadcasting the popular content to the edge. This matching role optimizes the overall operation of the 5G network infrastructure.
- Trucking and Head-End Feed (THEF): This use case allows a satellite to directly connect to 5G UEs in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available.
- Hybrid Multiplay (HYMP): This use case employs a satellite system to allow 5G service into home/office premises in underserved areas using the proposed 3GPP hybrid terrestrial-satellite broadband connections.
- Communications on-the-Move (COTM): For this use case, a satellite system is used to provide (i) direct connectivity to COTM platforms (e.g., aircraft, UAV, vehicles (boats, etc.) or (ii) complementary connectivity to COTM platforms supporting 5G services.
- mMTC Satellite Use Case:
- Wide area IoT services: IoT devices distributed over a wide area and reporting information to or controlled by a central server. Typical SATCOM applications include:
- Government: Monitoring of oil/gas pipeline status, border, Earthquakes, remote road alerts, etc.;
- Aerospace and Defense: Fleet management, space asset tracking, etc.;
- Education: Monitoring and tracking student work, faculty and staff management, etc.;
- Farming/Agriculture: Farm management, livestock management, etc.
- Local area IoT services: IoT devices are used to collect local data and report to the central server. Typical applications include a smart grid sub-system (advanced metering) or services for onboard moving platforms, e.g., a container onboard a vessel, a truck, or a train.
- uRLLC Satellite Use Case: As indicated in , 3GPP for satellite integration, the SATCOM services require 99.99% link availability, lower than 1ms communication link delay, and package error rate (PER) of 10−5 for communication link reliability. Typical uRLLC satellite applications include autonomous driving, remote surgery, factory automation, etc.
- 5G-NTN SATis5 Architecture with Transparent Satellite Payloads: The Satellite provides direct or non-direct access to UEs on the ground, i.e., connectivity between the satellite and UEs. For non-direct access, the connectivity would be through a base station (BS), which is a Relay Node (RN) on the ground. 3GPP has provided standards and specifications for the RN and associated air interface for the communication link between gNB and the RN. This architecture can support a satellite use case for eMBB. Figure 2a illustrates this architectural approach. This approach uses the new radio (NR) air interfaces between satellite and 5G-UE, and 5G-RN.
- SATis5 Architecture with Regenerative Satellite Payloads: As shown in Figure 2b, the 5G wireless BS’ (gNB) functionalities would be performed by the satellite and thus improve round-trip time (RTT) communications significantly. In addition, regenerative satellite payload would also allow for an inter-satellite link (ISL). The ISL can be used to relay information from the satellites to the ground stations for managing the hand-over mechanism for a large LEO satellite constellation. This architecture option also provides direct or non-direct access to UEs on the ground. Like transparent payload architecture, the access link to UEs is provided by an RN for non-direct access to 5G UEs. In addition to eMBB, this architecture can also support mMTC and some uRRLC satellite use cases. Like transparent satellite payload, this approach also uses the same NR air interfaces between satellite and 5G-UE, and 5G-RN.
- User plane (UP): This plane is for managing data transmission;
- Control Plane (CP): This plane is responsible for the control of the signaling mechanism.
- A1: SATis5 Architecture for Direct User Access Link with Transparent Satellite Payload (PL);
- A2: SATis5 Architecture for Non-Direct User Access with Transparent Satellite PL;
- A3: SATis5 Architecture for Direct User Access Link with Regenerative Satellite PL;
- A4: SATis5 Architecture for Non-Direct User Access with Regenerative Satellite PL.
3.2. Overview of Current Proposed SATis5 Roadmaps
- Adaptation of Satellite Networks in 5G Architecture: Reference  has analyzed the NR air interface design and multi-user transmission for 5G-TN and recommended the adaptation of the terrestrial system in satellite networks;
- Mobility Management, Routing Control, and Load Balance: [10,11] analyzed mobility management, routing control, and load balance associated with intra-satellite, inter-satellite, and inter-access handovers. Based on the analysis,  recommended approach for optimizing signaling overhead of handover assuring service continuity;
- Based on the analysis of the above three key SATis5 areas,  has proposed SATis5 roadmaps that include the following three phases:
- Short-Term Phase—SATis5 Serving as Backhaul Links: This phase focuses on the non-direct satellite links architecture. The integrated SATCOM architecture provides backhaul links for short-term 5G-RAN and gNB base stations expanding 5G networks coverage to rural and suburban areas, or emergency services. Figure 6 illustrates a strawman SATis5 architecture for a satellite backhaul network . Section 6 below provides a discussion on the NR air interfaces required at the satellite, gateway, and remote nodes. Note that 5G gNodeB (also known as gNB) at the remote node is very similar to terrestrial gNB located in the metropolitan areas, except that the gNB functions in remote areas are less complex than in metropolitan areas.
- Mid-Term Phase—SATis5 with Satellite Integrated 5G-NGC networks: This intermediate phase supports both direct and non-direct satellite links providing a unified Satellite-5G-NGC network integrated with satellite gateway, 5G-gNB base stations and terrestrial data network. The unified Satellite-5G-NGC automatically selects either satellite or terrestrial networks, depending on the required Quality of Services (QoS) and network availability, providing 5G services for users as required. Figure 7 describes a strawman SATis5 architecture for the intermediate phase. Discussion on the NR air interface is provided in Section 6 below.
- Long-Term Phase—The integration of 5G-UE-Satellite and NR-Satellite Air Interface: The final phase is the full integration of the 5G-UE-Satellite and NR-Satellite air interfaces. As indicated in , the satellite and 5G-TN can (i) adopt the same architecture with similar switching techniques and transmission technologies, and (ii) revise existing air interface protocols of the satellite access networks adapting the satellite-terrestrial wireless environment. Note that the 5G terrestrial networks use existing air interface protocols without changing the current 3GPP/5G-UE air interface protocol stack. Discussion of the NR air interface along with an outlook for long-term SATis5 architecture is provided in Section 6.
3.3. SATis5 Technical Challenges
- Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): The low SNR problem inherent with GEO satellites can be mitigated by selecting a power-efficient modulation technique along with high coding gain—The selection of the combined power-efficient modulation-and-coding (ComPEMaC) technique is constrained by the reliability requirements of terrestrial NR systems.
- Forward/Return Link Budget: The link budgets for the GEO satellite feeder and user links must be calculated and optimized to determine the feasibility of the proposed satellite communications links.
- Large Propagation Delay: In practice, a set of ComPEMaC schemes associated with various channel qualities will be available at gNB. A typical gNB selects the most appropriate scheme based on the channel quality indicator reported by the UE. Due to propagation delay associated with the GEO satellite, the channel information at gNB is not updated as required by the 3GPP specification. This delay problem leads to a non-optimum use of the channel resources leading to lower spectral efficiency. To mitigate this long-delay problem, a modification to the 5G “Radio Resource Control” (RRC) procedures is required. For non-direct access, a possible solution is to allow RRC making the RN play an active role between gNB and UE by optimizing both the UE access and the satellite user link air interfaces. This proposed mitigation technique requires an alternative technique for updating channel information between the UE and RN nodes.
- Propagation Delay: Like the eMBB case, RRC procedures are incompatible with SATCOM RTT delays, including:
- RRC timer procedure;
- “Random-Access Response” (RAR) time window size;
- Contention resolution window size;
- “Timing Advance” (TA);
- “Hybrid automatic repeat request” (HARQ).
- Large Doppler Effect and Phase Shift: The large Doppler effects and phase impairments associated with LEO satellites can cause interruption to successful transmission. This is because of the 3GPP standardized mMTC-NB-IoT frame structure associated with narrow-band and close OFDM subcarriers. The residual Doppler and Carrier Frequency Offset come from the Doppler compensation and frequency tracking circuitries can cause potential performance degradation.
- Forward/Return Link Budget: LEO satellite power constraint and characteristics of eNB (evolved NodeB), gNB, and narrow-band UE must be incorporated into the link budget calculations of the LEO satellite communication links associated with satellite feeder link and satellite-to-UE links.
- Battery Life: As specified in 3GPP requirements, the battery life associated with mMTC-NB-IoT-UE is around 10 years. However, for SATis5 services, the battery life is expected to last less than 10 years. This is because the SATis5 devices will require:
- Longer RTT which requires a longer wake-up period time requires performing the access procedures and data transmission;
- Higher transmitted power to close the link.
4. Overview of Recent and Existing Commercial SATis5 Testbeds and Projects
4.1. ESA ARTES Advanced Technology Project
- SATis5 Use Case 1: This use case focuses on the improved reliability through alternative connectivity independent from terrestrial, e.g., a 5G core network integrated with a satellite backhaul network operating as a 5G network;
- SATis5 Use Case 2: Provides backhaul for ultra-low latency services deployed at the network edge, e.g., a large amount of video delivery using a satellite backhaul network;
- SATis5 Use Case 3: Provides mobile and nomadic network deployment, e.g., movable connectivity islands with satellite backhaul;
- SATis5 Use Case 4: Provides enhanced and mesh IoT and multimedia services, e.g., mMTC-NB-IoT;
- SATis5 Use Case 5: Provides global coverage use case, e.g., integrated multi-orbit satellite systems providing global service flexibility;
- SATis5 Use Case 6: Provides convergence with data processing and earth observation;
- SATis5 Use Case 7: Provides End-to-end secure services, e.g., governmental use cases.
- Satellite Ground Systems: Two satellite hubs in Betzdorf and Munich;
- Satellite Ground Nodes: Many satellite-connected nodes are located at various 5G trial locations, including Berlin, Erlangen, Munich, Betzdorf, Killarney, and Nomadic with central nodes located in Berlin and in Betzdorf. Each remote node addresses a different use case;
- 5G Access Networks: LTE, NB-IoT-LTE, and non-3GPP access such as 60 GHz WLAN, WiFi and LoRa. Fraunhofer FOKUS Open5GCore is used to manage the connection of the devices;
- Satellites: The space segment is provided by a commercial satellite operator SES with its ASTRA 2F GEO satellite (28.20E) delivering seamless connectivity between the hub platforms in Betzdorf and Munich and the various 5G trial locations described above.
4.2. eMBB EU-Commissioned SaT5G Project
- SaT5G Use Case 1: as described in , this use case provides “edge delivery” and “offload” for “multimedia content” and “Multi-access Edge Computing” (MEC) “virtual network function” (VNF) software addressing multicast, caching of content to the “edge” and update of 5G network software;
- SaT5G Use Case 2: Provides fixed cell 5G backhaul, i.e., 5G backhauling of remote fixed cell sites;
- SaT5G Use Case 3: Provides 5G to the premises with hybrid multi-play, i.e., delivery of content, e.g., video streaming, using a combination of satellite and terrestrial 5G networks;
- SaT5G Use Case 4: Provides moving platform backhaul, i.e., 5G backhauling from mobile platforms such as ships, aircraft, and land vehicles.
4.3. Starlink Enhancement with 5G
4.4. Avanti Communications and ST Engineering iDirect on SATis5
4.5. GateHouse SATis5G mMTC-NB-IoT
4.6. NOKIA 5G from Space and Edge Slicing in Next-Generation Virtual Private Network
4.7. Integration of UAV and Satellites with 5G Network—mMTC-NB-IoT Use Case
- Satellite Layer: Handover mechanisms for both satellites and UAVs are required to manage the connectivity during the handover events—the handover mechanism is required to implement on both satellite and satellite ground stations.
- UAV: Routing protocols are required onboard UAVs for distributing data to IoT devices. In addition, UAV’s onboard storage is required to address the loss of connectivity between UAVs or between satellites and satellite gateways caused by outage events.
5. Overview of Recent and Existing Defense SATis5 Testbeds and Projects
6. Outlook Perspectives on SATis5 for Commercial and Defense Applications
6.1. Commercial SATis5 Applications
- N1 interface: This is for UE service, it is implemented between the UE and “Access and Mobility Management Function” (AMF) at the core network through gNB located at satellite customer provided equipment (CPE);
- N2 Interface: This interface is for RAN and UE service, and it is implemented between the gNB and the core AMF;
- N2 Interface: This interface is for the NTN-NT-UE service, and it is implemented between the NTN-LTE-gNB and the core AMF;
- N3 Interface: For NTN-NT-UE service, it is implemented between the NTN-LTE-gNB and the core “User Plane Function” (UPF);
- N3 Interface: For RAN and UE service, it is implemented between the gNB and the core UPF.
6.2. Defense SATis5 Applications
- MILSATCOM Satellite Payload: The payload’s air interface should be modified to adapt to the 5G network’s components, including NTN-LT-gNB, NTN-NT-UE, 5G-UEs, and 5G-NGC;
- CSP RAN (VNF): This CSP RAN can be replaced by a “Dedicated RAN” that allows the satellite gateway to process and manage the TRANSEC mechanisms associated with PHY/Datalink/MAC layers. The dedicated RAN will allow the satellite access to data networks through the 5G-NGC core network or mobile network operator core network. The NTN network termination gNB (NTN NT gNB) located at the satellite gateway should also be modified to (i) perform TRANSEC processing and management, and (ii) transport encapsulated control plane (CP) of the gNB;
- NTN Terminal: The Satellite CPE for the NTN Terminal can be replaced by “Dedicated NTN Terminal”. The NTN Terminal should be modified to adapt to PHY/Datalink/MAC layers associated with TRANSEC mechanisms;
- 5G UEs and MILSATCOM Satellite User Terminals: The users’ equipment and terminals should also be modified to adapt to the PHY/Datalink/MAC TRANSEC mechanisms associated with MILSATCOM satellites; and
- 5G-NGC: This should also be modified to manage the integrated SATis5 network resources effectively. The modified 5G-NGC is responsible for managing the use of communication resources optimally for both MILSATCOM and 5G networks.
7. Discussion and Conclusions
- Investigate implementation approaches of the new 5G-NR air interfaces for existing and planned defense SATCOM payloads taking into consideration (i) Direct and Non-Direct access satellite links, (ii) satellite payload size-weight-power-and-cost (SWAP-C), (iii) MILSATOM users’ QoS and Quality of Experience (QoE), (iv) satellite operation requirements and resource constraints, (v) 5G-UE SWAP-C, (vi) 5G users’ QoS and QoE, and (vii) Battery life of 5G UE and satellite user terminal. The key technical area is the modification of existing 3GPP 5G-NR PHY/Datalink/MAC layers taking into account the long RTT associated with MILSATCOM satellites. These layers include waveforms, data formats, and data frames, time synchronization, RRC timer procedure, RAR time window size, and timing advance.
- Study implementing approaches for modifying the 5G-NR air interfaces for defense SATCOM satellites at NTN-NT-UE and NTN-LT/5G-gNB which can allow the SATCOM users and 5G users access to 5G-NGC and hence data networks. The key technical task is the incorporation of the existing ComPEMaC technique into the MILSATCOM payloads and 5G-Gateway based on the channel quality reported by either 5G-UE or MILSATCOM user terminals.
- Examin existing 5G-NGC’s CP, including but not limited to AMF, SMF, UDM, PCF, and UPF, and propose control plan modifications taking into consideration of the newly modified 5G-NR air interfaces for defense SATCOM satellites.
- Develop innovative cost-effective business models which are derived based on the IEI perspective incorporating (i) Cost of IEI deployment, (ii) Cost of enterprise network maintenance and operations, (iii) Revenues for SATis5 services’ providers and related vendors, (iv) Government cost saving for using SATis5 services and meeting defense mission needs, and (v) 5G and MILSATCOM users’ QoS and QoE.
Conflicts of Interest
|3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project|
|4G||The fourth Generation wireless communication system|
|5G||The fifth Generation wireless communication system|
|5GIC||The 5G Internet Connection|
|6G||The sixth Generation wireless communication system|
|ABR||Adaptive Bit Rate|
|AC-STE-iDirect||Avanti Communications and ST Engineering iDirect|
|AMF||Access and Mobility Management Function|
|ARTES||Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems|
|ASTRA||Name of a satellite|
|BATF||Backhauling and Tower Feed|
|C2||Command and Control|
|C4ISR||Command, Control, Communication Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance|
|CCAM||Center for Computational and Applied Mathematics|
|CDN||Content Distribution Networks|
|CMAF-CTE||Common Media Application Format-Chunked Transfer Encoding|
|COTM||Comunication on the Move|
|COTS||Commercial of the Shelf|
|CPE||Customer Provided Equipment|
|CSP||Satellite Service Provider|
|CT||Core Network and Protocol|
|eMBB||Enhanced Mobile Broadband|
|ESA||European Space Agency|
|ESTEC||European Space Research and Technology Centre|
|ETSI||European Telecommunications Standards Institute|
|GEO||Geosynchronous Earth Orbit|
|GNSS||Global Navigation Satellite System|
|GSN||Ground Station Network|
|HAP||High Altitude Platform|
|HARQ||Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request|
|IEI||Integrated Enterprise Infrastructure|
|ISR||Intelligence, Surveillance Reconnaissance|
|JADC2||Joint All Domain Command and Control|
|LAP||Low Altitude Platform|
|LEO||Low Earth Orbit|
|MAC||Medium Access Layer|
|MEC||Multi-access Edge Computing|
|MEO||Medium Earth Orbit|
|MILSATOM||Military Satellite Communications|
|MPQUIC||Multipath version of the Quick UDP Internet Connections Protocol|
|NGC||Next-Generation Core Network|
|NGCN||Next-Generation Core Network|
|OFDM||Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing|
|OSI||Open Systems Interconnection Model|
|PCF||Policy Control Function|
|PDCP||Packet Data Convergence Protocol|
|PER||Package Error Rate|
|PLMN||Public Land Mobile Network|
|PNT||Position, Navigation, Timing|
|RAN||Radio Access Network|
|RRC||Radio Resource Control|
|SD-WAN||Software-Defined Wide Area Networks|
|SES||Satellite Earth Stations and Systems|
|SMF||Session Management Function|
|SWAP||Size, Weight, and Power|
|TCP||Transport Control Protocol|
|THEF||Trucking and Head-End Feed|
|UAV||Unmanned Aerial Vehicle|
|UDM||Unified Data Management|
|UDP||User Datagram Protocol|
|Urllc||Ultra-Reliable and Ultralow Latency Communications|
|UPF||User Plane Function|
|VDC||Virtual Data Center|
|VLEO||Very Low Earth Orbit|
|VNF||Virtualization of Network Functions|
|VPN||Virtual Private Network|
|VSAT||Very Small Aperture Terminal|
|VSNF||Video-Segment scheduling Network Function|
|WAN||Wide Area Network|
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|3GPP Study Item/Objective||Responsible Group||Technical Report||Release|
|RP-190710: Study on solutions for NR to support NTNs|
Objective: study a set of necessary features enabling NR support for NTN.
|RAN1, RAN2, RAN3||TR 38.821||16|
|RP-201256: Solutions for NR to support NTNs|
Objective: specify the enhancements identified for NR NTN with a focus on LEO and GEO and implicit compatibility to support HAP station and air-to-ground scenarios.
|RAN1, RAN2, RAN3, RAN4||N/A||17|
|SP-180326: Integration of satellite access in 5G|
Objective: specify stage 1 requirements.
|P-191335: Integration of satellite systems in the 5G architecture|
Objective: produce normative specifications based on the conclusions identified in TR 23.737 (see below)
|SP-181253: Study on architecture aspects for using satellite access in 5G|
Objective: identify key issues of satellite integration in 5G system architecture and provide solutions for direct satellite access and satellite backhaul.
|CP-202244: Core Network and Terminal (CT) aspects of 5GC architecture for satellite networks|
Objective of study phase: study the issues related to Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) selection and propose solutions.
Objective of normative phase: support Stage 2 requirements, and satellite access requirements and solutions for PLMN selection
|CT1, CT3, CT4||TR 24.821||17|
|Payload Type||User Access—Architecture||Satellite Hop||Possible SATis5 Scenario|
|Transparent||SATis5 A1—Direct Access:|
|Single||eMBB with GEO Sats|
|SATis5 A2—Non-Direct Access:|
|Single||mMTC-NB-IoT with Large Constellation (LC) LEO Sats|
|Regenerative||SATis5 A3—Direct Access:|
|Single||eMBB with GEO Sats|
|SATis5 A4—Non-Direct Access:|
|Single||mMTC-NB-IoT and uRLLC |
with LC-LEO Sats
|SATis5 Architecture||UE Air-Interface Design Feature||Satellite Design|
|SATis5 Gateway Design Feature|
|A1: SATis5 with Direct User for Transparent Satellite||UEs access satellites directly||The satellite connects to 5G UEs directly||Satellite Gateway process gNB and NGC protocols|
|A2: SATis5 with Non-Direct User for Transparent Satellite||UEs access satellite via terrestrial RN||Satellite connects to terrestrial RN|
|A3: SATis5 with Direct User for Generative Satellite||UEs access satellites directly||Satellites process full gNB protocols||Satellite Gateway processes NGC protocols|
|A4: SATis5 with Direct User for Generative Satellite||UEs access satellites via terrestrial RNs||The satellites process part of gNB protocols and the other part can be performed at RN|
|SATis5 Use case||SATis5 PoC Testbed Use Case Description||Results||Conclusion|
|Use Case 1||5G core network integrated with satellite backhaul network operating as 5G network||Demonstrated capability to leverage COTS 5G core network capabilities to manage a satellite network||Low overhead integration of satellite in existing telecom networks; Open-up satellite|
Industry to the 3GPP ecosystem.
|Use Case 2||Large amount of video delivery using satellite backhaul network||Delivery time delay:|
- First video—788 ms
- Next videos—3 ms
|Very high efficiency using|
the satellite broadcasting
and edge caching
|Use Case 3||Nomadic node for movable connectivity islands with satellite backhaul||Instant network availability at use case location||Easy to initiate, cost-effective connectivity when and wherever needed|
|Use Case 4||mMTC-NB-IoT data uplink (U/L)||Non-time critical data U/L:|
- 287 ms delay
- 0.02% packet loss
|Highly reliable support|
for massive IoT
|Use Case 5||Integrated multi-orbit satellite systems providing global service flexibility||Demonstrated seamless traffic handover between multi-orbit systems||Integrated multi-orbit satellite systems provide greater service flexibility|
|SaT5G Use Case||eMBB SaT5G Testbed Use Case Description||Results||Conclusion|
|Use Case 1||5G MEC-enabled platform for CDN integration and efficient edge content delivery via satellite||(1) Session start-up time–zapping time: 1.5 to 0.9 s; (2) Start-up layer: Always starts on high-quality layer; (3) Bitrate and layers switches: 99% of the session at highest layer; (4) Bandwidth saving: Terrestrial broadband reduced by a factor of 5; (5) Latency: From 12.1 to 3.9 s||(1) Improved video distribution efficiency using mABR over satellite, and video delivery synchronization between screens; (2) Reduced E2E latency using CMAF-CTE Dash over mABR link; (3) Multiscreen capability over satellite;|
|Use Case 2||Multiclient video streaming with 5G multi linking incorporating mABR adaptation, link selection, and enhanced video streams||(1) Deliver enhanced video quality|
meeting E2E user QoE; (2) Use of the satellite link considerably reduces
the requirements for terrestrial backhaul
|Video quality can be improved to meet E2E User QoE by using mABR adaptation and link selection|
|Use Case 3||5G hybrid backhauling using multi linking||(1) Performance for short objects is four to 20 times better than satellite alone; (2) Comparable performance for long objects.||Performance can be improved by using|
multipath protocols to aggregate multilink bandwidths optimally when combined with user QoE for path selection
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Nguyen, T.M.; Pham, K.D.; Nguyen, J.; Chen, G.; Lee, C.H.; Behseta, S. A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration. Encyclopedia 2022, 2, 1296-1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030087
Nguyen TM, Pham KD, Nguyen J, Chen G, Lee CH, Behseta S. A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration. Encyclopedia. 2022; 2(3):1296-1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030087Chicago/Turabian Style
Nguyen, Tien M., Khanh D. Pham, John Nguyen, Genshe Chen, Charles H. Lee, and Sam Behseta. 2022. "A Review of SATis5: Perspectives on Commercial and Defense 5G SATCOM Integration" Encyclopedia 2, no. 3: 1296-1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030087