Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress and Entrepreneurial Resilience; The Mediating Role of the Well-Being of Entrepreneurs and Moderating Role Perceived Online Social Support
2. Theoretical Background and Hypotheses Development
2.1. Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress and Well-Being of Individual Entrepreneur
2.2. The Well-Being of Individual Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurial Resilience
2.3. The Mediating Role of Well-Being of the Individual Entrepreneur
2.4. The Moderating Role of Perceived Online Social Support on the Relationship between the Well-Being of Individual Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Resilience
3.1. Sample and Procedure
3.2.1. Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress
3.2.2. Well-Being of Entrepreneur
3.2.3. Perceived Online Social Support
3.2.4. Entrepreneurial Resilience
3.2.5. Control Variables
3.2.6. Common Method Bias
3.3. Analytical Strategy
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
4.2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Chi-Square Difference Test
4.3. Hypothesis Testing
5.1. Theoretical Contributions
5.2. Practical Implications
5.3. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Measurement Items
- Perceive Entrepreneurial stress measures 
- I have a heavy workload every day.
- Competition in my line of business is intense.
- There is a rapid development of products in my line of business and in my line of business that I need to always update my knowledge.
- I spend a lot of time and energy managing the responsibilities related to my business.
- I feel nervous that I do not have sufficient funds to operate my business.
- Wellbeing of entrepreneur 
- I lead a purposeful and meaningful life.
- My social relationships are supportive and rewarding.
- I am engaged and interested in my daily activities.
- I actively contribute to the happiness and well-being of others.
- I am competent and capable in the activities that are important to me.
- I am a good person and live a good life.
- I am optimistic about my future.
- People respect me.
- Perceived Online social support 
- I can find help online/Internet.
- I can find the emotional help and support that I need online/Internet.
- I can talk with someone online/Internet about my problems.
- I can find someone online/on Internet that helps me make decisions.
- Entrepreneurial resilience 
- I believe I can grow in positive ways by dealing with difficult situations.
- I actively look for ways to replace the losses I encounter in life.
- I look for creative ways to alter difficult situations.
- Regardless of what happens to me, I believe I can control my reaction to it.
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|1. Gender (F = 0; M = 1) a||0.51||0.50||-|
|3. Education b||3.32||1.31||0.05||0.40 **||-|
|4. Business age c||3.10||2.18||0.02||0.19 **||0.02||-|
|6. wellbeing||3.80||0.65||−0.16 *||−0.08||−0.05||0.08||−0.04 **||0.88|
|7. Resilience||3.61||0.66||0.03 **||−0.02||0.05||−0.35||0.01||0.43 **||0.86|
|8. Online support||3.94||0.56||−0.06||0.08||0.08||0.02||0.01||0.43 **||0.36 *||0.74|
|3-factor model a||302.92||149||0.00||95.69 **||3||0.89||0.91||0.07|
|2-factor model b||600.49||151||0.00||393.26 ***||5||0.70||0.74||0.12|
|1-factor model c||757.60||152||0.00||550.37 ***||6||0.88||0.90||0.14|
|Well-Being of Entrepreneur||Entrepreneurial Resilience|
|M 1||M 2||M 3||M 4||M 5||M 6||M 7|
|Intercept||4.21 ***||2.46 ***||3.48 ***||3.53 ***||1.89 ***||0.97 ***||3.97 ***|
|POSS||0.51 ***||0.31 ***||0.43 ***||0.24 **||−0.01|
|EW × POSS||0.26||0.23 **|
|F||2.20||9.61 ***||9.89 ***||0.23||5.05 ***||8.72 ***||7.45 ***|
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Kipkosgei, F. Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress and Entrepreneurial Resilience; The Mediating Role of the Well-Being of Entrepreneurs and Moderating Role Perceived Online Social Support. Merits 2022, 2, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2010001
Kipkosgei F. Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress and Entrepreneurial Resilience; The Mediating Role of the Well-Being of Entrepreneurs and Moderating Role Perceived Online Social Support. Merits. 2022; 2(1):1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Kipkosgei, Felix. 2022. "Perceived Entrepreneurial Stress and Entrepreneurial Resilience; The Mediating Role of the Well-Being of Entrepreneurs and Moderating Role Perceived Online Social Support" Merits 2, no. 1: 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits2010001