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Article

Climate Change and the Spatiotemporal Variation in Survival of a Long-Distance Migrant (White Stork, Ciconia ciconia) across Western Europe

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Fundación Migres, CIMA, N-340 km 85, E-11380 Tarifa, Spain
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Applied Ecology Group, Doñana Biological Station, CSIC, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Seville, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jukka Jokimäki
Birds 2021, 2(4), 362-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/birds2040027
Received: 24 September 2021 / Revised: 28 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Birds 2021)
Although impacts of climate change at the population level are frequently reported in the scientific literature, the effects of global warming on particular individuals are not well-known, specifically when it comes to large spatial scales. However, understanding how the effects on individuals are translated into impacts in animal populations is key to getting insight into the consequences of climate change for species conservation. We used ring recoveries of White Storks across western Europe to assess the influence of different environmental factors on the survival of this long-distance migratory bird. We found that both the shape and the strength of the relationship between climate warming and survival differ across age groups, with juvenile White Storks more strongly affected. Furthermore, we found a decline in survival which is particularly marked for those storks breeding in southern Europe. The large-scale effect of climatic conditions identified in this widespread and common long-distance migrant species represents a highly likely scenario for other migratory birds in Europe.
The spatial variation in the strength of climate change may lead to different impacts on migratory birds using different breeding areas across a region. We used a long-term data series of White Stork ring recoveries to study the temporal and spatial variation of annual survival rates of White Stork across western Europe between 1960 and 2009 in relation to climatic and environmental conditions at their breeding and wintering grounds. White Stork survival was estimated from the Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model using a cohort-based analysis. Our results support that climate change has caused a gradual decline in the survival performance of western European White Storks during the study period. Both the shape and the strength of the relationship between climate warming and survival differ among different life-stages of the individual development, with juvenile White Storks more strongly affected. The decline in survival is particularly marked for those storks breeding in southern Europe. The large-scale effect of climatic conditions identified in this widespread long-distance migrant species represents a highly likely scenario for other migratory birds in Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; mark-recapture; NDVI; temperature anomaly; Cormack–Jolly–Seber climate change; mark-recapture; NDVI; temperature anomaly; Cormack–Jolly–Seber
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martín, B.; Onrubia, A.; Ferrer, M. Climate Change and the Spatiotemporal Variation in Survival of a Long-Distance Migrant (White Stork, Ciconia ciconia) across Western Europe. Birds 2021, 2, 362-380. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds2040027

AMA Style

Martín B, Onrubia A, Ferrer M. Climate Change and the Spatiotemporal Variation in Survival of a Long-Distance Migrant (White Stork, Ciconia ciconia) across Western Europe. Birds. 2021; 2(4):362-380. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds2040027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martín, Beatriz, Alejandro Onrubia, and Miguel Ferrer. 2021. "Climate Change and the Spatiotemporal Variation in Survival of a Long-Distance Migrant (White Stork, Ciconia ciconia) across Western Europe" Birds 2, no. 4: 362-380. https://doi.org/10.3390/birds2040027

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