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Optimization of a New Material with Clay and Waste Coffee Grounds for Additive Manufacturing †

Escola Superior de Arte e Design das Caldas da Rainha, Politécnico de Leiria, 2500-321 Caldas da Rainha, Portugal
Centro Para o Desenvolvimento Rápido Sustentado do Produto, Politécnico de Leiria, 2430-080 Marinha Grande, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the Materiais 2022, Marinha Grande, Portugal, 10–13 April 2022.
Mater. Proc. 2022, 8(1), 69;
Published: 7 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of MATERIAIS 2022)


This article aims to study a new ceramic paste mixing red clay with coffee residues in 3D printing, proposing an effective solution for the recycling of coffee residues. Intense studies were made on clay paste containing 5, 10, 15, and 20% coffee grounds. The morphological and chemical aspects were evaluated through SEM, Micro CT, and FTIR images; physical and mechanical properties were assessed by mechanical resistance, absorption, and drying tests, with the aim to obtain results on the hardness, permeability, absorption, and weight; finally, 3D-printing tests were performed to study the paste behavior and understand its advantages in new emerging technologies. The incorporation of coffee residues in red clay results in a light and very porous product; thus increasing the water absorption and apparent porosity. Some pieces were created to test the structural capacity and consistency of the paste. The idea was to create bricks, floors, and coverings.

Author Contributions

Conceptulisation, S.S.; Methodology, S.S. and A.R.F.; Resources, G.M.; Writing—original draft S.S.; Writing—review and editing, A.R.F. and G.M.; Supervision, G.M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This work is supported by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through the Project references: UID/Multi/04044/2013; PAMI-ROTEIRO/0328/2013 (No. 022158), Add.Additive-POCI-01-0247-FEDER-024533.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not Applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not Applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Details of the methodology are available from the corresponding author.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, S.; Fonseca, A.R.; Mitchell, G. Optimization of a New Material with Clay and Waste Coffee Grounds for Additive Manufacturing. Mater. Proc. 2022, 8, 69.

AMA Style

Silva S, Fonseca AR, Mitchell G. Optimization of a New Material with Clay and Waste Coffee Grounds for Additive Manufacturing. Materials Proceedings. 2022; 8(1):69.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Sara, Ana Rita Fonseca, and Geoffrey Mitchell. 2022. "Optimization of a New Material with Clay and Waste Coffee Grounds for Additive Manufacturing" Materials Proceedings 8, no. 1: 69.

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