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Review

Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing

1
School of Food and Agriculture, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 412, FI-60101 Seinäjoki, Finland
2
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Campusallee 12, DE-32657 Lemgo, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 556-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040044
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 30 September 2021 / Published: 10 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which has become more challenging with the emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques is required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are as follows: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements; the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using an appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum; the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods; and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fasse, S.; Alarinta, J.; Frahm, B.; Wirtanen, G. Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing. Dairy 2021, 2, 556-575. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040044

AMA Style

Fasse S, Alarinta J, Frahm B, Wirtanen G. Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing. Dairy. 2021; 2(4):556-575. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fasse, Sylvia, Jarmo Alarinta, Björn Frahm, and Gun Wirtanen. 2021. "Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing" Dairy 2, no. 4: 556-575. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040044

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