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Open AccessArticle

Solvent Effect on the Regulation of Urea Hydrolysis Reactions by Copper Complexes

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Laboratório de Metaloenzimas e Biomiméticos, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil
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Instituto Federal Goiano, Rod. GO, km 154, s/n 03, Ceres, Goiás 76300-000, Brazil
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Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-100, Brazil
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Laboratório de Química Teórica, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil
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Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. João Dagnone, 1100, Jardim Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo 13563-120, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Chemistry 2020, 2(2), 525-544; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry2020032
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry in the 3rd Millennium)
Abiotic allosterism is most commonly observed in hetero-bimetallic supramolecular complexes and less frequently in homo-bimetallic complexes. The use of hemilabile ligands with high synthetic complexity enables the catalytic center by the addition or removal of allosteric effectors and simplicity is unusually seen in these systems. Here we describe a simpler approach to achieve kinetic regulation by the use of dimeric Schiff base copper complexes connected by a chlorido ligand bridge. The chlorido ligand acts as a weak link between monomers, generating homo-bimetallic self-aggregating supramolecular complexes that generate monomeric species in different reaction rates depending on the solvent and on the radical moiety of the ligand. The ligand exchange was observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and conductivity measurements, indicating that complexes with ligands bearing methoxyl (CuIIL2) and ethoxyl (CuIIL5) radicals were more prone to form dimeric complexes in comparison to ligands bearing hydrogen (CuIIL1), methyl (CuIIL3), or t-butyl (CuIIL4) radicals. The equilibrium between dimer and monomer afforded different reactivities of the complexes in acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures toward urea hydrolysis as a model reaction. It was evident that the dimeric species were inactive and that by increasing the water concentration in the reaction medium, the dimeric structures dissociated to form the active monomeric structures. This behavior was more pronounced when methanol/water mixtures were employed due to a slower displacement of the chlorido bridge in this medium than in the acetonitrile/water mixtures, enabling the reaction kinetics to be evaluated. This effect was attributed to the preferential solvation shell by the organic solvents and in essence, an upregulation behavior was observed due to the intrinsic nature of the complexes to form dimeric structures in solution that could be dismantled in the presence of water, indicating their possible use as water-sensors in organic solvents. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper complexes; chlorido ligand displacement; catalysis regulation; Schiff base ligands; urea hydrolysis; supramolecular chemistry copper complexes; chlorido ligand displacement; catalysis regulation; Schiff base ligands; urea hydrolysis; supramolecular chemistry
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Castro, C.B.; Silveira, R.G.; Colombari, F.M.; de Moura, A.F.; Nascimento, O.R.; Marques Netto, C.G.C. Solvent Effect on the Regulation of Urea Hydrolysis Reactions by Copper Complexes. Chemistry 2020, 2, 525-544.

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