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Preparation of Activated Carbon from Coffee Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Chromium (III) from Water. Optimization for an Experimental Box-Behnken Design

Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campo No. 1. Av. 1 de mayo, Sta. María Las Torres, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Estado de México, México C.P. 54740, Mexico
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Chemistry 2020, 2(1), 2-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemistry2010002
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 19 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry and Society)
Coffee grounds are an organic waste consisting of the ground, roasted and processed grain for the extraction of coffee, being of great volume the waste obtained, which, if not treated and preserved for a long time, emanates unpleasant aromas and becomes an optimal means for the proliferation of flies, and other pests. Activated carbon has the characteristic of being a material that has a large surface area; because of this, it is used in adsorption, which refers to the retention of atoms, ions, and molecules on its surface. In this paper, the production of activated carbon is presented by means of the physicochemical activation of coffee waste by calcining at 900 °C and subsequent activation with sulfuric acid, as well as the Box–Behnken design of three factors for chromium (III) adsorption optimization. It is determined that the optimal conditions for performing the adsorption are pH = 3 and a contact time of 140 min. According to the analysis of variance for the experimental design, it is determined that the initial chromium formation is not significant for the adsorption process. Under the optimal adsorb conditions of 96%, an application is given to the erasure of coffee for the production of activated carbon, which serves as the adsorbent agent applied to the removal of chromium (III) aqueous. The area of activated carbon obtained is 13657.89 ± 251.09 m2/g determined by the acetic acid adsorption isotherm method. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; activated carbon; chromium (III), Box–Behnken design adsorption; activated carbon; chromium (III), Box–Behnken design
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Obaya Valdivia, A.E.; Montaño Osorio, C.; Vargas Rodríguez, Y.M. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Coffee Waste as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Chromium (III) from Water. Optimization for an Experimental Box-Behnken Design. Chemistry 2020, 2, 2-10.

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