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Open AccessArticle

Gamified Participatory Sensing in Tourism: An Experimental Study of the Effects on Tourist Behavior and Satisfaction

1
Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara 630–0192, Japan
2
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Research Fellowship for Young Scientists, Tokyo 102–0083, Japan
3
RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project AIP, Tokyo 103–0027, Japan
4
Graduate School and Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka 812–0053, Japan
5
Japan Science and Technology Agency, Presto, Tokyo 102–0076, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Smart Cities 2020, 3(3), 736-757; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030037
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 July 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
In the tourism sector, user-generated information and communication among tourists are perceived to be more effective and reliable contents. In addition, the collection of dynamic tourism information with high spatio-temporal resolution is required to provide comfortable tourism in response to the changing tourism style with the advancement of information technology. Participatory sensing, which can collect various types of information is a useful method by which to collect these contents. However, continuous participation of users is essential in participatory sensing, and it is one of the most important points to stimulate participation motivation. In the tourism situation, we also need to pay attention to the total tourist satisfaction of participants. In this paper, we adopt gamification, i.e., the implementation of game design elements in real-world contexts for non-gaming purposes, for participatory sensing as an incentive mechanism to motivate participants with active participation and collect the necessary information efficiently. Within the framework, where points are given when completing the requested sensing task (=mission), two sensing missions with different burdens; Area Mission and Check-in Mission, and three different types of rewarding mechanisms; Fixed, Variable and Dynamic Variable, are designed as a gamification mechanism. We implemented these elements in the proposed participatory sensing platform application and conducted an experimental case study with 33 participants at an actual tourist spot: Kyoto, Japan. Then, we investigate the effects on tourist behavior and satisfaction by analyzing collected sensor data, mission logs, and post-survey answers. As a result, we can conclude the following: (1) the tourist behavior is changed due to the proposed gamification design and the necessary information was collected efficiently; (2) the participants tend to prioritize Check-in Mission over the sightseeing, which can induce a behavior change but might impact sightseeing enjoyment. View Full-Text
Keywords: participatory sensing; gamification; tourism; incentive mechanism; behavior change participatory sensing; gamification; tourism; incentive mechanism; behavior change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kawanaka, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Suwa, H.; Fujimoto, M.; Arakawa, Y.; Yasumoto, K. Gamified Participatory Sensing in Tourism: An Experimental Study of the Effects on Tourist Behavior and Satisfaction. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 736-757. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030037

AMA Style

Kawanaka S, Matsuda Y, Suwa H, Fujimoto M, Arakawa Y, Yasumoto K. Gamified Participatory Sensing in Tourism: An Experimental Study of the Effects on Tourist Behavior and Satisfaction. Smart Cities. 2020; 3(3):736-757. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kawanaka, Shogo; Matsuda, Yuki; Suwa, Hirohiko; Fujimoto, Manato; Arakawa, Yutaka; Yasumoto, Keiichi. 2020. "Gamified Participatory Sensing in Tourism: An Experimental Study of the Effects on Tourist Behavior and Satisfaction" Smart Cities 3, no. 3: 736-757. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities3030037

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