The Work Function of TiO2
Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Surface Science Division, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Otto-Berndt-Straße 3, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Institute of Molecular Sciences, University of Bordeaux, CNRS UMR 5255, Bâtiment A12, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence CEDEX, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Polycrystalline anatase thin films, (001)- and (101)-oriented anatase TiO
single crystals and (001)- and (110)-oriented rutile TiO
single crystals with various surface treatments were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain their surface potentials. Regardless of orientations and polymorph, a huge variation of the Fermi level and work function was achieved by varying the surface condition. The most strongly oxidized surfaces are obtained after oxygen plasma treatment with a Fermi level ∼2.6 eV above the valence band maximum and ionization potentials of up to 9.5 eV (work function 7.9 eV). All other treated anatase surfaces exhibit an ionization potential independent of surface condition of
eV. The Fermi level positions and the work functions vary by up to 1 eV. The ionization potential of rutile is ∼0.56 eV lower than that of anatase in good agreement with recent band alignment studies.
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Kashiwaya, S.; Morasch, J.; Streibel, V.; Toupance, T.; Jaegermann, W.; Klein, A. The Work Function of TiO2. Surfaces 2018, 1, 73-89.
Kashiwaya S, Morasch J, Streibel V, Toupance T, Jaegermann W, Klein A. The Work Function of TiO2. Surfaces. 2018; 1(1):73-89.
Kashiwaya, Shun; Morasch, Jan; Streibel, Verena; Toupance, Thierry; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Klein, Andreas. 2018. "The Work Function of TiO2." Surfaces 1, no. 1: 73-89.
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