Next Article in Journal
pH Controlled Impedimetric Sensing of Copper(II) Ion Using Oxytocin as Recognition Element
Previous Article in Journal
Material Structure and Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Oxynitride Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
Article Menu
Issue 1 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Work Function of TiO2

Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Surface Science Division, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Otto-Berndt-Straße 3, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Institute of Molecular Sciences, University of Bordeaux, CNRS UMR 5255, Bâtiment A12, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence CEDEX, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
Surfaces 2018, 1(1), 73-89;
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
PDF [9354 KB, uploaded 7 September 2018]


Polycrystalline anatase thin films, (001)- and (101)-oriented anatase TiO 2 single crystals and (001)- and (110)-oriented rutile TiO 2 single crystals with various surface treatments were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain their surface potentials. Regardless of orientations and polymorph, a huge variation of the Fermi level and work function was achieved by varying the surface condition. The most strongly oxidized surfaces are obtained after oxygen plasma treatment with a Fermi level ∼2.6 eV above the valence band maximum and ionization potentials of up to 9.5 eV (work function 7.9 eV). All other treated anatase surfaces exhibit an ionization potential independent of surface condition of 7.96 ± 0.15 eV. The Fermi level positions and the work functions vary by up to 1 eV. The ionization potential of rutile is ∼0.56 eV lower than that of anatase in good agreement with recent band alignment studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2; anatase; rutile; work function; electron spectroscopy; photocatalysis TiO2; anatase; rutile; work function; electron spectroscopy; photocatalysis

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kashiwaya, S.; Morasch, J.; Streibel, V.; Toupance, T.; Jaegermann, W.; Klein, A. The Work Function of TiO2. Surfaces 2018, 1, 73-89.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Surfaces EISSN 2571-9637 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top