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Clean Technol. 2018, 1(1), 114-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cleantechnol1010008

Preparation and Characterization of Chemically-Modified Biomaterials and Their Application as Adsorbents of Penicillin G

1
Chemistry Section, Department of Exact Sciences, School of Sciences and Philosophy, Cayetano Heredia University, Lima L31, Peru
2
Science Department, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, NY 10007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract

The prevalence of antibiotics in water creates microbial resistance and has a negative impact on the ecosystem. Biomaterials such as spent tea leaves are rich in functional groups and are suitable for chemical modification for diverse applications. This research proposes the use of spent tea leaves of chamomile (CM), green tea (GT), and peppermint (PM) as structural scaffolds for the incorporation of carboxyl, sulfonyl, and thiol groups to improve the adsorption of Penicillin G (Pe). Adsorbents characterization reported a higher number of acidic functional groups, mainly in thiolated products. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed changes on the surfaces of the adsorbents due to reaction conditions, with a stronger effect on thiolated and sulfonated adsorbents. Elemental analysis by Energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS) corroborated the chemical modification by the presence of sulfur atoms and the increase in oxygen/carbon ratios. Batch experiments at different pH shows a strong pH-dependence with a high adsorption at pH 8 for all the adsorbents. The adsorption follows the trend CMs > GTs > PMs. Thiolation and sulfonation reported higher adsorptions, which is most likely due to the sulfur bridge formation, reaching adsorption percentages of 25%. These results create a new mindset in the use of spent tea leaves and their chemical modifications for the bioremediation of antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; thiolation; carboxylation; sulfonation; spent tea leaves; Penicillin G (Pe) adsorption; thiolation; carboxylation; sulfonation; spent tea leaves; Penicillin G (Pe)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Silva, J.; Morante, L.; Demeke, T.; Baah-Twum, J.; Navarro, A.E. Preparation and Characterization of Chemically-Modified Biomaterials and Their Application as Adsorbents of Penicillin G. Clean Technol. 2018, 1, 114-124.

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