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Soil Syst. 2018, 2(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems2040064

Non-Flat Earth Recalibrated for Terrain and Topsoil

1
VermEcology, 101 Suidomichi, Nogeyama, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 231-0064, Japan
2
Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Odawara nr. Hakone, Kanagawa-ken 247-0007, Japan
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract

Earth’s land surface is raised from conventionally flat 15 Gha to >64 Gha accounting for hilly slope undulation and topsoil relief detail. Three main aspects are: topography, rugosity/tortuosity, and micro-relief/porosity of ice/vegetation-free ground. Recalibration arises from four approaches: First, direct empirical estimates of compiled satellite/LiDAR data means of +2.5–26% surface progressively overlain by +94% at cm2 scale for soil ruggedness then +108% for mm2 micro-relief; Second, from digital elevation models with thrice 1.6–2.0 times flat areas; Third, by ‘reverse engineering’ global soil bulk densities and carbon reserves requiring ×4–6 land. Finally, a Fermi estimation doubles the Earth’s surface—as exposed to Sun, air and rain—conveniently set at 100 Gha (with 64 Gha land:36 Gha ocean). Soil organic carbon (SOC) thereby grows to 8580 Gt mainly in SOM-humus with its biotic complexity plus roots, Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM-fungi), leaf-litter and earthworms itself totaling 17,810 Gt. Although four to six times IPCC’s or NASA/NOAA’s calculated 1500–2300 Gt SOC, this is likely an underestimation. Global biomass and biodiversity are at least doubled (×2–3.5) and net primary productivity (NPP) increases to >270 Gt C yr−1 due to terrain. Rationale for a ‘Soil Ecology Institute’ gains ground. View Full-Text
Keywords: topographical land surface-area; soil carbon sequestration; global climate; earthworms topographical land surface-area; soil carbon sequestration; global climate; earthworms
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Blakemore, R.J. Non-Flat Earth Recalibrated for Terrain and Topsoil. Soil Syst. 2018, 2, 64.

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