This article proposes an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for accurate estimation of signal propagation using LoRaWAN. By using ANFIS, the basic knowledge of propagation is embedded into the proposed model. This reduces the training complexity of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models. Therefore, the size of the training dataset is reduced by 70% compared to an ANN model. The proposed model consists of an efficient clustering method to identify the optimum number of the fuzzy nodes to avoid overfitting, and a hybrid training algorithm to train and optimize the ANFIS parameters. Finally, the proposed model is benchmarked with extensive practical data, where superior accuracy is achieved compared to deterministic models, and better generalization is attained compared to ANN models. The proposed model outperforms the nondeterministic models in terms of accuracy, has the flexibility to account for new modeling parameters, is easier to use as it does not require a model for propagation environment, is resistant to data collection inaccuracies and uncertain environmental information, has excellent generalization capability, and features a knowledge-based implementation that alleviates the training process. This work will facilitate network planning and propagation prediction in complex scenarios.
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