The study explored the effects of white space on reading performance of Chinese essays on smartphones. The experiment was a 2(Line spacing) × 2(Paragraph spacing) × 3(Page spacing) Latin square design with two replicates. The Line spacing had two levels: two-font leading and three-font leading. The Paragraph spacing included two levels: one-leading space and two-leading space. The Page spacing included three levels: none spacing, one-third spacing, and one-half spacing. The objective performance measure was reading time; and subjective performance measures included ratings of ease, comfort, aesthetic appeal, and preference. Results of analysis of variance indicated that the main effects of Page spacing, Line spacing, and Paragraph spacing were significant on reading time. Additionally, Page spacing was also significant on ratings of ease, comfort, aesthetic appeal and preference; Line spacing was significant on comfort and aesthetic appeal. However, Paragraph spacing was not significant on ratings of effortlessness, comfort, aesthetic appeal, and preference.
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