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Open AccessArticle

An Effect of White Space on Traditional Chinese Text-Reading on Smartphones

Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, National Formosa University, No. 64, Wenhua Road, HuWei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 195, Kunda Road, Yongkang, Tainan 71070, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Applied System Invention (ICASI), Chiba, Japan, 13–17 April 2018.
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2018, 1(3), 24;
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
The study explored the effects of white space on reading performance of Chinese essays on smartphones. The experiment was a 2(Line spacing) × 2(Paragraph spacing) × 3(Page spacing) Latin square design with two replicates. The Line spacing had two levels: two-font leading and three-font leading. The Paragraph spacing included two levels: one-leading space and two-leading space. The Page spacing included three levels: none spacing, one-third spacing, and one-half spacing. The objective performance measure was reading time; and subjective performance measures included ratings of ease, comfort, aesthetic appeal, and preference. Results of analysis of variance indicated that the main effects of Page spacing, Line spacing, and Paragraph spacing were significant on reading time. Additionally, Page spacing was also significant on ratings of ease, comfort, aesthetic appeal and preference; Line spacing was significant on comfort and aesthetic appeal. However, Paragraph spacing was not significant on ratings of effortlessness, comfort, aesthetic appeal, and preference. View Full-Text
Keywords: white space; Chinese text-reading; smartphone white space; Chinese text-reading; smartphone
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Huang, S.-M.; Li, W.-J.; Tung, S.-C. An Effect of White Space on Traditional Chinese Text-Reading on Smartphones . Appl. Syst. Innov. 2018, 1, 24.

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