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The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Upper Reaches of Fluvial Systems in the Southern East European Plain

1
Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny lane 29, 119017 Moscow, Russia
2
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory 1, 119899 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Quaternary 2020, 3(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat3040031
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Archives: Climatic and Topographical Influences)
Networks of dry valleys (or balkas) and hollows in the upper reaches of fluvial basins in extraglacial areas in the Penultimate Glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 6—MIS 6) regions of the East European Plain demonstrate clear incision/aggradation rhythms corresponding to global glacial/interglacial climate cycles. The first phase of each incision/aggradation rhythm began after the global glacial maximum and was characterized by a cool and humid climate, permafrost and sparse vegetation, when high surface runoff and active linear erosion formed a dense network of gullies. The second phase occurred at the glacial–interglacial transition and the subsequent interglacial period with its warm and humid climate and dense vegetation. This phase was distinguished by the partial filling of fluvial forms with slopewash deposits, the transformation of gullies into dry valleys (balkas) and the subsequent stabilization of fluvial forms marked by the formation of mature soils on the sides and bottoms of balkas. The third phase of the rapid accumulation of balkas developed during the cold and dry part of the next glacial epoch, resulting in the balkas becoming shallow hollows filled in with sediments. The last full incision/aggradation rhythm occurred in the late MIS 6 to mid-MIS 2. The erosion network formed during the late MIS 6 was almost completely filled by mid-MIS 2, and its manifestation in the modern topography is limited to a network of shallow hollows in the upper parts of the fluvial systems. The modern (incomplete) incision/aggradation rhythm began in the late MIS 2 and caused the formation of the modern erosion landscape in the upper reaches of fluvial systems. This rhythm is now in the stabilization phase, and the main accumulation phase of this rhythm is still far in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry valley; balka; hollow; incision/aggradation rhythm; glacial/interglacial cycle; MIS 6; MIS 2; Holocene dry valley; balka; hollow; incision/aggradation rhythm; glacial/interglacial cycle; MIS 6; MIS 2; Holocene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Panin, A.; Borisova, O.; Konstantinov, E.; Belyaev, Y.; Eremenko, E.; Zakharov, A.; Sidorchuk, A. The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Upper Reaches of Fluvial Systems in the Southern East European Plain. Quaternary 2020, 3, 31.

AMA Style

Panin A, Borisova O, Konstantinov E, Belyaev Y, Eremenko E, Zakharov A, Sidorchuk A. The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Upper Reaches of Fluvial Systems in the Southern East European Plain. Quaternary. 2020; 3(4):31.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panin, Andrey; Borisova, Olga; Konstantinov, Evgeny; Belyaev, Yury; Eremenko, Ekaterina; Zakharov, Andrey; Sidorchuk, Aleksey. 2020. "The Late Quaternary Evolution of the Upper Reaches of Fluvial Systems in the Southern East European Plain" Quaternary 3, no. 4: 31.

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