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Quaternary 2019, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2010006

Late Quaternary Variations in the South American Monsoon System as Inferred by Speleothems—New Perspectives Using the SISAL Database

1
Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, J.-J.-Becher-Weg 21, 55128 Mainz, Germany
2
Faculty of Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
3
Institute of Geosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Lago 562, São Paulo 05508-080, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sandy P. Harrison, Laia Comas Bru and Valentí Rull
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Speleothem Records and Climate)
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Abstract

Here we present an overview of speleothem δ18O records from South America, most of which are available in the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL_v1) database. South American tropical and subtropical speleothem δ18O time series are primarily interpreted to reflect changes in precipitation amount, the amount effect, and consequently history of convection intensity variability of convergence zones such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the South America Monsoon System (SAMS). We investigate past hydroclimate scenarios in South America related to the South American Monsoon System in three different time periods: Late Pleistocene, Holocene, and the last two millennia. Precession driven summertime insolation is the main driver of convective variability over the continent during the last 120 kyrs (from present day to 120 kyrs BP), including the Holocene. However, there is a dipole between speleothem δ18O records from western and eastern South America. Records located in the central region of Brazil are weakly affected by insolation-driven variability, and instead are more susceptible to the variability associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Cold episodic events in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Heinrich and Bond Events, and the Little Ice Age, increase the convective activity of the SAMS, resulting in increased precipitation amount in South America. View Full-Text
Keywords: South American Monsoon System; SAMS; SISAL; speleothems; quaternary South American Monsoon System; SAMS; SISAL; speleothems; quaternary
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Deininger, M.; Ward, B.M.; Novello, V.F.; Cruz, F.W. Late Quaternary Variations in the South American Monsoon System as Inferred by Speleothems—New Perspectives Using the SISAL Database. Quaternary 2019, 2, 6.

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