Topographic and geomorphological surveys of coastal areas usually require the aerial mapping of long and narrow sections of littoral. The georeferencing of photogrammetric models is generally based on the signalization and survey of Ground Control Points (GCPs), which are very time-consuming tasks. Direct georeferencing with high camera location accuracy due to on-board multi-frequency GNSS receivers can limit the need for GCPs. Recently, DJI has made available the Phantom 4 Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) (DJI-P4RTK), which combines the versatility and the ease of use of previous DJI Phantom models with the advantages of a multi-frequency on-board GNSS receiver. In this paper, we investigated the accuracy of both photogrammetric models and Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) generated in Agisoft Metashape from two different image datasets (nadiral and oblique) acquired by a DJI-P4RTK. Camera locations were computed with the Post-Processing Kinematic (PPK) of the Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) file recorded by the aircraft during flight missions. A Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) located at a 15 km distance from the site was used for this task. The results highlighted that the oblique dataset produced very similar results, with GCPs (3D RMSE = 0.025 m) and without (3D RMSE = 0.028 m), while the nadiral dataset was affected more by the position and number of the GCPs (3D RMSE from 0.034 to 0.075 m). The introduction of a few oblique images into the nadiral dataset without any GCP improved the vertical accuracy of the model (Up RMSE from 0.052 to 0.025 m) and can represent a solution to speed up the image acquisition of nadiral datasets for PPK with the DJI-P4RTK and no GCPs. Moreover, the results of this research are compared to those obtained in RTK mode for the same datasets. The novelty of this research is the combination of a multitude of aspects regarding the DJI Phantom 4 RTK aircraft and the subsequent data processing strategies for assessing the quality of photogrammetric models, DTMs, and cross-section profiles.
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