The purpose of this work is a comparison of indirect carbon dioxide emissions between the different heat pump types that operate in Polish climate conditions. This analysis embraces an air–water heat pump (ASHP), ground–water heat pump (GSHP), water–water heat pump (WSHP), and a WSHP with a separating heat exchanger (SHE) in the selected towns, one in each climatic zone in the country. The study starts from a computation of heat demand and electrical energy consumption in every hour of the heating season using temperature values taken from a typical meteorological year (TMY). Then, seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) values are determined, which enables an assessment of which kind of heat pump meets the European Union requirements in every location. Eventually, indirect CO2 emissions that are caused by electrical energy production are estimated for every heat pump in each location.
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