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Proceedings 2018, 2(13), 859;

Fog Effects on Time-of-Flight Imaging Investigated by Ray-Tracing Simulations

CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524, Austria
Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Graz 8020, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the Eurosensors 2018 Conference, Graz, Austria, 9–12 September 2018.
Published: 29 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Eurosensors 2018)
PDF [900 KB, uploaded 29 November 2018]


Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors are a key technology for autonomous vehicles and autonomous mobile robotics. Quantifying the extent of perturbation induced by atmospheric phenomena on ToF imaging is critical to identify effective correction strategies. Here we present an approach that uses optical ray-tracing to simulate the ToF image, while the distance information is recovered by analyzing the optical path of each ray. Such an approach allows, for example, understanding the effects of different ray paths on the ToF image, or testing various retrieval/correction algorithms upon running a single ray-tracing simulation. By modelling several scattering scenarios, we show that ranging errors arise mostly from light backscattered to the sensor prior reaching the scene. Scattering events close to the sensors (<1 m) have the largest influence, therefore strategies capable of filtering out signals from distances shorter than the range of interest can significantly improve the accuracy of ToF sensors.
Keywords: global illumination; Mie scattering; ray-tracing simulations; Time-of-Flight sensors global illumination; Mie scattering; ray-tracing simulations; Time-of-Flight sensors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Consani, C.; Druml, N.; Dielacher, M.; Baumgart, M. Fog Effects on Time-of-Flight Imaging Investigated by Ray-Tracing Simulations. Proceedings 2018, 2, 859.

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