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Nitrogen, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 5 articles

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Open AccessReview
Extent and Variation of Nitrogen Losses from Non-legume Field Crops of Conterminous United States
Nitrogen 2020, 1(1), 34-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen1010005 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Nitrogen (N) losses from field crops have raised environmental concerns. This manuscript accompanies a database of N loss studies from non-legume field crops conducted across the conterminous United States. Cumulative N losses through nitrous oxide-denitrification (CN2O), ammonia volatilization (CNH3), [...] Read more.
Nitrogen (N) losses from field crops have raised environmental concerns. This manuscript accompanies a database of N loss studies from non-legume field crops conducted across the conterminous United States. Cumulative N losses through nitrous oxide-denitrification (CN2O), ammonia volatilization (CNH3), and nitrate leaching (CNO3) during the growing season and associated crop, soil, and water management information were gathered to determine the extent and controls of these losses. This database consisted of 404, 26, and 358 observations of CN2O, CNH3, and CNO3 losses, respectively, from sixty-two peer-reviewed manuscripts. Corn (Zea mays) dominated the N loss studies. Losses ranged between −0.04 to 16.9, 2.50 to 50.9, and 0 to 257 kg N ha−1 for CN2O, CNH3 and CNO3, respectively. Most CN2O and CNO3 observations were reported from Colorado (n = 100) and Iowa (n = 176), respectively. The highest values of CN2O, and CNO3 were reported from Illinois and Minnesota states, and corn and potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively. The application of anhydrous NH3 had the highest value of CN2O loss, and ammonium nitrate had the highest CNO3 loss. Among the different placement methods, the injection of fertilizer-N had the highest CN2O loss, whereas the banding of fertilizer-N had the highest CNO3 loss. The maximum CNO3 loss was higher for chisel than no-tillage practice. Both CN2O and CNO3 were positively correlated with fertilizer N application rate and the amount of water input (irrigation and rainfall). Fertilizer-N management strategies to control N loss should consider the spatio-temporal variability of interactions among climate, crop-and soil types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollution Reduction in Throughflow from Vegetated and Non-Vegetated, Foam-Based Surfaces and Green Roofs
Nitrogen 2020, 1(1), 21-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen1010004 - 05 Aug 2018
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
The ability of foam-based unplanted and green surfaces (Aqualok™) to remove pollutants (total suspended solids (TSS), NO3, NH4, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP)) from direct precipitation and roof runoff passing through the surfaces was assessed. The [...] Read more.
The ability of foam-based unplanted and green surfaces (Aqualok™) to remove pollutants (total suspended solids (TSS), NO3, NH4, total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP)) from direct precipitation and roof runoff passing through the surfaces was assessed. The assessments were conducted using unplanted Aqualok™ and planted Aqualok™ roof panels and a bioswale Aqualok™ installed on two Fire and Emergency Medical Service Stations (FEMSs) in Washington, D.C., USA. During a three-year period, impacts on water chemistry were evaluated by examining overall averages as well as performance over time. Upon installation, all Aqualok™ surfaces released a “pulse” of TSS and NO3, which decreased over time. TP concentrations from the planted panels were elevated relative to conventional roof runoff throughout the study. TOC was generally higher for planted Aqualok™ compared to unplanted Aqualok™, and did not decrease over time. Excluding the three months post-installation, TSS in throughflow from planted and unplanted Aqualok™ surfaces was 88% and 90% lower, respectively, than in runoff from a conventional tar and gravel roof. No significant differences between green surface throughflow and conventional roof runoff for NO3 or NH4 were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization and Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Assessing Nitric Oxide (NO) in Higher Plants: An Outline
Nitrogen 2020, 1(1), 12-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen1010003 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical and a component of the N-cycle. Nevertheless, NO is likewise endogenously produced inside plant cells where it participates in a myriad of physiological functions, as well as in the mechanism of response against abiotic and biotic [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical and a component of the N-cycle. Nevertheless, NO is likewise endogenously produced inside plant cells where it participates in a myriad of physiological functions, as well as in the mechanism of response against abiotic and biotic stresses. At biochemical level, NO has a family of derived molecules designated as reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which finally can interact with different bio-macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids affecting their functions. The present review has the goal to provide a comprehensive and quick overview of the relevance of NO in higher plants, especially for those researchers who are not familiar in this research area in higher plants. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Biosensor-Mediated In Situ Imaging Defines the Availability Period of Assimilatory Glutamine in Maize Seedling Leaves Following Nitrogen Fertilization
Nitrogen 2020, 1(1), 3-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen1010002 - 19 Jul 2017
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is an important assimilatory intermediate between root-derived inorganic nitrogen (N) (i.e., ammonium) and downstream macromolecules, and is a central regulator in plant N physiology. The timing of Gln accumulation after N uptake by roots has been well characterized. [...] Read more.
The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is an important assimilatory intermediate between root-derived inorganic nitrogen (N) (i.e., ammonium) and downstream macromolecules, and is a central regulator in plant N physiology. The timing of Gln accumulation after N uptake by roots has been well characterized. However, the duration of availability of accumulated Gln at a sink tissue has not been well defined. Measuring Gln availability would require temporal measurements of both Gln accumulation and its reciprocal depletion. Furthermore, as Gln varies spatially within a tissue, whole-organ in situ visualization would be valuable. Here, the accumulation and subsequent disappearance of Gln in maize seedling leaves (Zea mays L.) was imaged in situ throughout the 48 h after N application to roots of N-deprived plants. Free Gln was imaged by placing leaves onto agar embedded with bacterial biosensor cells (GlnLux) that emit luminescence in the presence of leaf-derived Gln. Seedling leaves 1, 2, and 3 were imaged simultaneously to measure Gln availability across tissues that potentially vary in N sink strength. The results show that following root N fertilization, free Gln accumulates and then disappears with an availability period of up to 24 h following peak accumulation. The availability period of Gln was similar in all seedling leaves, but the amount of accumulation was leaf specific. As Gln is not only a metabolic intermediate, but also a signaling molecule, the potential importance of regulating its temporal availability within plant tissues is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Nitrogen: A New Cross-Disciplinary International Open Access Journal
Nitrogen 2020, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen1010001 - 12 Jun 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Nitrogen, the element that is intimately associated with essentially all processes on Earth, is the broad focus of a new online, open access journal.[...] Full article
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