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The Critical Interspecies Transmission Barrier at the Animal–Human Interface

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, 792 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020072
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) infect humans and a wide range of animal species in nature, and waterfowl and shorebirds are their reservoir hosts. Of the 18 haemagglutinin (HA) and 11 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of IAV, 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes infect aquatic birds. However, among the diverse pool of IAVs in nature, only a limited number of animal IAVs cross the species barrier to infect humans and a small subset of those have spread efficiently from person to person to cause an influenza pandemic. The ability to infect a different species, replicate in the new host and transmit are three distinct steps in this process. Viral and host factors that are critical determinants of the ability of an avian IAV to infect and spread in humans are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; species barrier; cross-species infection; zoonoses; animal–human interface influenza; species barrier; cross-species infection; zoonoses; animal–human interface
MDPI and ACS Style

Subbarao, K. The Critical Interspecies Transmission Barrier at the Animal–Human Interface. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 72.

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