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Open AccessArticle

Scabies in Resource-Poor Communities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria: Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Factors Associated with Infestation

Parasitology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515 Ilorin, Nigeria
Department of Community Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza CE 60430-140, Brazil
College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, Division of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(2), 59;
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
PDF [239 KB, uploaded 4 June 2018]


Epidemiology and clinical features of scabies remain largely unknown in Nigeria’s rural communities. To fill this gap, we performed a cross-sectional study in three rural communities in north central Nigeria. A total of 500 individuals were included and examined for scabies infestation; a questionnaire was applied to collect socio-demographic and behavioral data. Scabies was diagnosed in 325 (65.0%) participants. Excoriations (68.6%), vesicles (61.8%), and papules (58.8%) were common skin lesions. Itching was the most common symptom (77.5%); 64% complained of sleep disturbances. Lymphadenopathy was identified in 48.3%. Lesions were most commonly encountered on the abdomen (35.5%), inguinal area (19.1%), and interdigital spaces (14.2%). Poverty-related variables, such as illiteracy (OR: 7.15; 95% CI: 3.71–13.95), low household income (7.25; 1.19–88.59), absence of a solid floor inside house (12.17; 2.83–52.34), and overcrowding (1.98; 1.08–2.81) were significantly associated with infestation. Individual behavior, such as sharing of beds/pillows (2.11; 1.42–3.14) and sharing of clothes (2.51; 1.57–3.99), was also highly significantly associated with scabies. Regular bathing habits (0.37; 0.24–0.56) and regular use of bathing soap (0.36; 0.21–0.53) were protective factors. Scabies is extremely common in the communities under study and is associated with considerable morbidity. The disease is intrinsically linked with extreme poverty. View Full-Text
Keywords: scabies; epidemiology; parasitic skin disease; cross-sectional study; Nigeria scabies; epidemiology; parasitic skin disease; cross-sectional study; Nigeria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ugbomoiko, U.S.; Oyedeji, S.A.; Babamale, O.A.; Heukelbach, J. Scabies in Resource-Poor Communities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria: Epidemiology, Clinical Features and Factors Associated with Infestation. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 59.

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