Next Article in Journal
Potential Animal Reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Diagnostic Performance of Kato Katz Technique and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test in Diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni Infection in HIV-1 Co-Infected Adults on the Shoreline of Lake Victoria, Tanzania
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review of Laboratory-Acquired Infections in the Asia-Pacific: Understanding Risk and the Need for Improved Biosafety for Veterinary and Zoonotic Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication

The Convergence of High-Consequence Livestock and Human Pathogen Research and Development: A Paradox of Zoonotic Disease

MRI Global, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66503, USA
Institute of Food Production and Sustainability, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, USA
Strategic Biosecurity and Biocontainment Facility Management Consultant, Kurt Zuelke Consulting, Lenexa, KS 66220, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(2), 55;
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Laboratory Safety Including Biosafety)
PDF [2455 KB, uploaded 30 May 2018]


The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that zoonotic diseases transmitted from animals to humans account for 75 percent of new and emerging infectious diseases. Globally, high-consequence pathogens that impact livestock and have the potential for human transmission create research paradoxes and operational challenges for the high-containment laboratories that conduct work with them. These specialized facilities are required for conducting all phases of research on high-consequence pathogens (basic, applied, and translational) with an emphasis on both the generation of fundamental knowledge and product development. To achieve this research mission, a highly-trained workforce is required and flexible operational methods are needed. In addition, working with certain pathogens requires compliance with regulations such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Select Agent regulations, which adds to the operational burden. The vast experience from the existing studies at Plum Island Animal Disease Center, other U.S. laboratories, and those in Europe and Australia with biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facilities designed for large animals, clearly demonstrates the valuable contribution this capability brings to the efforts to detect, prepare, prevent and respond to livestock and potential zoonotic threats. To raise awareness of these challenges, which include biosafety and biosecurity issues, we held a workshop at the 2018 American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Biothreats conference to further discuss the topic with invited experts and audience participants. The workshop covered the subjects of research funding and metrics, economic sustainment of drug and vaccine development pipelines, workforce turnover, and the challenges of maintaining operational readiness of high containment laboratories. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosafety; biosecurity; BSL-3-Ag; high-consequence pathogen research; zoonotic disease biosafety; biosecurity; BSL-3-Ag; high-consequence pathogen research; zoonotic disease

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Michelotti, J.M.; Yeh, K.B.; Beckham, T.R.; Colby, M.M.; Dasgupta, D.; Zuelke, K.A.; Olinger, G.G. The Convergence of High-Consequence Livestock and Human Pathogen Research and Development: A Paradox of Zoonotic Disease. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 55.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top