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Article

Diagnostic Performance of Kato Katz Technique and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test in Diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni Infection in HIV-1 Co-Infected Adults on the Shoreline of Lake Victoria, Tanzania

1
Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
2
Department of Community Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza CE 60430-140, Brazil
3
College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, Division of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3020054
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
Background: The diagnostic performance of the Kato Katz (KK) technique and the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in detecting S. mansoni infection in the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has remained inconclusive. The present cross-sectional survey compared the diagnostic performance of the KK technique and the POC-CCA test in diagnosing S. mansoni infection in an adult population co-infected with HIV-1 in northwestern Tanzania. Methods: Single urine and stool samples from 979 adults were screened for S. mansoni infection using both the KK technique and POC-CCA tests. To compare the performance of the two diagnostic tests a combined artificial gold standard was created, based on either an egg-positive KK technique or a POC-CCA-positive test. Results: Based on the KK technique, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 47.3% (463/979, 95% CI: 44.2–50.4), as compared to 60.5% by the POC-CCA test (592/979; 95% CI: 57.4–63.5). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA test were 92.5% (95% CI: 89.4–94.9) and 73.3% (95% CI: 69.6–76.8), respectively. In the HIV-1 seropositive group, the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA test were 78.1% (95% CI: 60.0–90.7) and 45.9% (95% CI: 35.8–56.3). Using a combined gold standard, the sensitivity of the POC-CCA test increased to >90% in both subgroups whereas that of the KK technique in the HIV-1 seropositive group was low (49.5%; 95% CI: 39.6–59.5). Conclusion: In the presence of HIV-1 co-infection, the KK technique attained a very low sensitivity. The POC-CCA test offers the best option for the rapid screening of S. mansoni infection in communities with a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni; HIV-1; point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen; sensitivity; specificity; adult; Tanzania Schistosoma mansoni; HIV-1; point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen; sensitivity; specificity; adult; Tanzania
MDPI and ACS Style

Mazigo, H.D.; Heukelbach, J. Diagnostic Performance of Kato Katz Technique and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test in Diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni Infection in HIV-1 Co-Infected Adults on the Shoreline of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3020054

AMA Style

Mazigo HD, Heukelbach J. Diagnostic Performance of Kato Katz Technique and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test in Diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni Infection in HIV-1 Co-Infected Adults on the Shoreline of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2018; 3(2):54. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3020054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mazigo, Humphrey D., and Jorg Heukelbach. 2018. "Diagnostic Performance of Kato Katz Technique and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test in Diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni Infection in HIV-1 Co-Infected Adults on the Shoreline of Lake Victoria, Tanzania" Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 3, no. 2: 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3020054

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