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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3010030

Melioidosis in the Western Indian Ocean and the Importance of Improving Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Molecular Typing

1
Unité de Bactériologie Expérimentale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
2
Central Health Laboratory, Victoria Hospital, Candos 72211, Mauritius
3
Laboratoire Immuno-Hématologie, CHU Pointe-à-Pitre/Abymes 97159, Guadeloupe
4
Unité de Bactériologie/UMR_MD1, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Brétigny sur Orge, Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 91223 Paris, France
5
Unit of Foodborne, Highly Pathogenic Bacterial Zoonoses & Antibiotic Resistance, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center, Brussels 1180, Belgium
6
Réanimation polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Félix Guyon, 97499 Saint Denis, France
7
Bactériologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Félix Guyon, 97499 Saint Denis, France
8
Ministry of Health, Public Health Department, Victoria, Seychelles
9
Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4556, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis)
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Abstract

Melioidosis, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an infectious disease of humans or animals, and the specific environmental conditions that are present in western Indian Ocean islands are particularly suitable for the establishment/survival of B. pseudomallei. Indeed, an increasing number of new cases have been reported in this region (Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion (France), and Seychelles, except Comoros and Mayotte (France)), and are described in this review. Our review clearly points out that further studies are needed in order to investigate the real incidence and burden of melioidosis in the western Indian Ocean and especially Madagascar, since it is likely to be higher than currently reported. Thus, research and surveillance priorities were recommended (i) to improve awareness of melioidosis in the population and among clinicians; (ii) to improve diagnostics, in order to provide rapid and effective treatment; (iii) to implement a surveillance and reporting system in the western Indian Ocean; and (iv) to investigate the presence of B. pseudomallei in environmental samples, since we have demonstrated its presence in soil samples originating from the yard of a Madagascan case. View Full-Text
Keywords: Melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; western Indian Ocean; diagnosis; MLST; Madagascar; Mauritius; Réunion; Seychelles Melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; western Indian Ocean; diagnosis; MLST; Madagascar; Mauritius; Réunion; Seychelles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rakotondrasoa, A.; Issack, M.I.; Garin, B.; Biot, F.; Valade, E.; Wattiau, P.; Allou, N.; Belmonte, O.; Bibi, J.; Price, E.P.; Collard, J.-M. Melioidosis in the Western Indian Ocean and the Importance of Improving Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Molecular Typing. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 30.

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