Enhanced Rabies Surveillance to Support Effective Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in the Eastern United States
AbstractEnhanced rabies surveillance (ERS) is essential for sound oral rabies vaccination (ORV) decisions to prevent the spread of specific rabies virus variants in meso-carnivores and to achieve disease elimination. Use of a direct rapid immunohistochemistry test (dRIT) in North America for timely, accurate rabies diagnosis in the field has facilitated greater ERS emphasis since 2005. ERS used in tandem with exposure-based public health surveillance provides a comprehensive understanding of the geographic distribution of rabies as an aid to formulate effective management strategies for raccoons and other meso-carnivores. In 2015, best management practices were implemented for improving, reinvigorating, and standardizing ERS. A point system for weighing ERS sample categories was evaluated, to determine whether sampling emphasis should be focused upon ill or strange-acting animals, the highest quality category. During 2016, 70.7% of rabid animals detected through ERS in raccoon rabies management states were obtained from strange-acting animals, followed by animals found dead (14.1%), road kills (9.1%), and nuisance-collected specimens (6.1%). Sample category weights may be adjusted based on additional evaluation to ensure continued emphasis on the highest value samples. High quality ERS, in conjunction with serologic evidence of population-based immunity, form the backbone for ORV decisions in the elimination of raccoon rabies. View Full-Text
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Kirby, J.D.; Chipman, R.B.; Nelson, K.M.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Blanton, J.D.; Algeo, T.P.; Slate, D. Enhanced Rabies Surveillance to Support Effective Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in the Eastern United States. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 34.
Kirby JD, Chipman RB, Nelson KM, Rupprecht CE, Blanton JD, Algeo TP, Slate D. Enhanced Rabies Surveillance to Support Effective Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in the Eastern United States. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2017; 2(3):34.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kirby, Jordona D.; Chipman, Richard B.; Nelson, Kathleen M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Algeo, Timothy P.; Slate, Dennis. 2017. "Enhanced Rabies Surveillance to Support Effective Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in the Eastern United States." Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2, no. 3: 34.
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