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Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Dogs in Navajo Nation, USA

Navajo Nation Veterinary Program, PO Box 2204, Chinle, AZ 86503, USA
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 8836 N 23rd Avenue, Suite 2, Phoenix, AZ 85021, USA
IDT Biologika GmbH, Am Pharmapark, Dessau-Rosslau 06861, Germany
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Rabies Management Program, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Rupprecht and Bernhard Dietzschold
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(2), 17;
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
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Mass parenteral vaccination remains the cornerstone of dog rabies control. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) could increase vaccination coverage where free-roaming dogs represent a sizeable segment of the population at risk. ORV’s success is dependent on the acceptance of baits that release an efficacious vaccine into the oral cavity. A new egg-flavored bait was tested alongside boiled bovine intestine and a commercially available fishmeal bait using a hand-out model on the Navajo Nation, United States, during June 2016. A PVC capsule and biodegradable sachet were tested, and had no effect on bait acceptance. The intestine baits had the highest acceptance (91.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 83.9%–96.7%), but the fishmeal (81.1%; 95% CI, 71.5%–88.6%) and the egg-flavored baits (77.4%; 95% CI, 72.4%–81.8%) were also well accepted, suggesting that local bait preference studies may be warranted to enhance ORV’s success in other areas where canine rabies is being managed. Based on a dyed water marker, the delivery of a placebo vaccine was best in the intestine baits (75.4%; 95% CI, 63.5%–84.9%), followed by the egg-flavored (68.0%; 95% CI, 62.4%–73.2%) and fishmeal (54.3%; 95% CI, 42.9%–65.4%) baits. Acceptance was not influenced by the supervision or ownership, or sex, age, and body condition of the dogs. This study illustrates that a portion of a dog population may be orally vaccinated as a complement to parenteral vaccination to achieve the immune thresholds required to eliminate dog rabies. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies; bait; dog; oral vaccination rabies; bait; dog; oral vaccination

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Bender, S.; Bergman, D.; Vos, A.; Martin, A.; Chipman, R. Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Dogs in Navajo Nation, USA. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 17.

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