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Open AccessArticle

Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2, Canada
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Centre of Expertise for Rabies, Ottawa, ON K2H 8P9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(3), 21;
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
Following an incursion of the mid-Atlantic raccoon variant of the rabies virus into southern Ontario, Canada, in late 2015, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies (dRIT) was employed on a large scale to establish the outbreak perimeter and to diagnose specific cases to inform rabies control management actions. In a 17-month period, 5800 wildlife carcasses were tested using the dRIT, of which 307 were identified as rabid. When compared with the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT), the dRIT was found to have a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.2%. Positive and negative test agreement was shown to be 98.3% and 99.1%, respectively, with an overall test agreement of 98.8%. The average cost to test a sample was $3.13 CAD for materials, and hands-on technical time to complete the test is estimated at 0.55 h. The dRIT procedure was found to be accurate, fast, inexpensive, easy to learn and perform, and an excellent tool for monitoring the progression of a wildlife rabies incursion. View Full-Text
Keywords: dRIT; Ontario; rabies; surveillance dRIT; Ontario; rabies; surveillance
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Middel, K.; Fehlner-Gardiner, C.; Pulham, N.; Buchanan, T. Incorporating Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing into Large-Scale Wildlife Rabies Surveillance. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 21.

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