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Article

Understanding the Headless Rider: Display-Based Awareness and Intent-Communication in Automated Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction in Mixed Traffic

1
Center for Technology Experience, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Center for Human-Computer Interaction, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shadan Sadeghian Borojeni and Philipp Wintersberger
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5(9), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5090051
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface and Experience Design for Future Mobility)
Automated vehicles do not yet have clearly defined signaling methods towards other road users, which could complement natural communication practices with human drivers, such as eye contact or hand gestures. In order to establish trust, external human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) have been proposed, but so far, these have not been widely evaluated in natural traffic contexts. This paper presents a user study where 30 participants interacted with a functional display-based visual eHMI for an automated shuttle in mixed urban traffic. Two distinct features were investigated: the communication of (1) its awareness of different obstacles on the road ahead and (2) of its intention to start or to brake. The results indicate that the majority of participants in general regarded eHMIs as necessary for automated vehicles. When reflecting their experience with the eHMIs, about half of the participants experienced an increased comprehension and safety. The combined presentation of obstacle awareness and vehicle intentions helped more participants to understand the shuttle’s behavior than the presentation of obstacle awareness only, but fewer participants regarded this combination of awareness and intent to be safe. The strength of the found effects on subjective responses varied with regard to age and gender. View Full-Text
Keywords: human–computer interaction; automotive user interfaces; public transportation acceptance; trust; mixed traffic human–computer interaction; automotive user interfaces; public transportation acceptance; trust; mixed traffic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Forke, J.; Fröhlich, P.; Suette, S.; Gafert, M.; Puthenkalam, J.; Diamond, L.; Zeilinger, M.; Tscheligi, M. Understanding the Headless Rider: Display-Based Awareness and Intent-Communication in Automated Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction in Mixed Traffic. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5090051

AMA Style

Forke J, Fröhlich P, Suette S, Gafert M, Puthenkalam J, Diamond L, Zeilinger M, Tscheligi M. Understanding the Headless Rider: Display-Based Awareness and Intent-Communication in Automated Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction in Mixed Traffic. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2021; 5(9):51. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5090051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Forke, Julia, Peter Fröhlich, Stefan Suette, Michael Gafert, Jaison Puthenkalam, Lisa Diamond, Marcel Zeilinger, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2021. "Understanding the Headless Rider: Display-Based Awareness and Intent-Communication in Automated Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction in Mixed Traffic" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5, no. 9: 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5090051

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