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Article

Displays for Productive Non-Driving Related Tasks: Visual Behavior and Its Impact in Conditionally Automated Driving

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CARISSMA Institute of Automated Driving, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt (THI), 85049 Ingolstadt, Germany
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Institute for Pervasive Computing, Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU), 4020 Linz, Austria
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Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, 85072 Eichstätt, Germany
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Institute of Visual Computing and Human-Centered Technology, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mu-Chun Su
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5040021
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface and Experience Design for Future Mobility)
(1) Background: Primary driving tasks are increasingly being handled by vehicle automation so that support for non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) is becoming more and more important. In SAE L3 automation, vehicles can require the driver-passenger to take over driving controls, though. Interfaces for NDRTs must therefore guarantee safe operation and should also support productive work. (2) Method: We conducted a within-subjects driving simulator study (N=53) comparing Heads-Up Displays (HUDs) and Auditory Speech Displays (ASDs) for productive NDRT engagement. In this article, we assess the NDRT displays’ effectiveness by evaluating eye-tracking measures and setting them into relation to workload measures, self-ratings, and NDRT/take-over performance. (3) Results: Our data highlights substantially higher gaze dispersion but more extensive glances on the road center in the auditory condition than the HUD condition during automated driving. We further observed potentially safety-critical glance deviations from the road during take-overs after a HUD was used. These differences are reflected in self-ratings, workload indicators and take-over reaction times, but not in driving performance. (4) Conclusion: NDRT interfaces can influence visual attention even beyond their usage during automated driving. In particular, the HUD has resulted in safety-critical glances during manual driving after take-overs. We found this impacted workload and productivity but not driving performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: automated driving; take-over requests; conditional automation; non-driving related tasks; eye-tracking; performance; behavior; displays; productivity; visual attention automated driving; take-over requests; conditional automation; non-driving related tasks; eye-tracking; performance; behavior; displays; productivity; visual attention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schartmüller, C.; Weigl, K.; Löcken, A.; Wintersberger, P.; Steinhauser, M.; Riener, A. Displays for Productive Non-Driving Related Tasks: Visual Behavior and Its Impact in Conditionally Automated Driving. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5040021

AMA Style

Schartmüller C, Weigl K, Löcken A, Wintersberger P, Steinhauser M, Riener A. Displays for Productive Non-Driving Related Tasks: Visual Behavior and Its Impact in Conditionally Automated Driving. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2021; 5(4):21. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5040021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schartmüller, Clemens, Klemens Weigl, Andreas Löcken, Philipp Wintersberger, Marco Steinhauser, and Andreas Riener. 2021. "Displays for Productive Non-Driving Related Tasks: Visual Behavior and Its Impact in Conditionally Automated Driving" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5, no. 4: 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5040021

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