There is an increasing interest in the use of intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) to work in teams with humans. To achieve successful outcomes for these heterogeneous teams, many of the aspects found in successful human teams will need to be supported. These aspects include behavioural (i.e., multimodal communication), cognitive (i.e., a shared mental model (SMM)), and social (trust and commitment). Novelly, this paper aims to investigate the impact of IVA’s multimodal communication on the development of a SMM between humans and IVAs. Moreover, this paper aims to explore the impact of the developed SMM on a human’s trust in an IVA’s decisions and a human’s commitment to honour his/her promises to an IVA. The results from two studies involving a collaborative activity showed a significant positive correlation between team multimodal communication (i.e., behavioural aspect) and a SMM between teammates (i.e., cognitive aspect). Moreover, the result showed that there is a significant positive correlation between the developed SMM and a human’s trust in the IVA’s decision and the human’s commitment to honour his/her promises (the establishment of the social aspect of teamwork). Additionally, the results showed a cumulative effect of all of these aspects on human–agent team performance. These results can guide the design of human–agent teamwork multimodal communication models.
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