Residential streets, particularly in automobile-dependent suburban locations, have frequently been perceived as ecologically unsustainable, antisocial, unhealthy, and aesthetically dull from an urban design perspective. However, residential streets can be improved through infrastructure retrofits, particularly by combining green and grey infrastructures and integrating various functions and services. Using a systematic literature review and an adapted landscape services framework, the paper analyses the status of retrofit research and discusses existing composition and spatial integration of green, grey, and green-grey street infrastructure. Findings suggest changing infrastructure compositions in residential streets and a trend toward increased grey and green-grey infrastructure integration. However, functional connectivity is often lacking, and while barriers to implementation have been suggested, few have been tested. While retrofits are potentially able to increase the number and quality of landscape services that support human well-being, more—and possibly longitudinal—research is required to advance and analyze their implementation and provide evidence for their success.
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