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Urban Sci. 2019, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010008

Characterization of Water and Energy Consumptions at the End Use Level in Rural and Urban Environments: Preliminary Results of the ENERWAT Project

1
ECT—School of Science and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
C-MADE—Centre of Materials and Building Technologies, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
3
INESC TEC-INESC Technology and Science (Formerly INESC Porto), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
4
CMAT-Centre of Mathematics, DMA-Department of Mathematics and Applications, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future of Water: Local, Regional and Global Best Practice)
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Abstract

The characterization of water and energy consumptions is essential in order to define strategies for their rational use. The way these resources are used in households is the path for efficient and rational management, interdependent from each other. It is believed that there are significant differences between the patterns of water and energy consumption in rural and urban areas, where influencing factors should also be identified. This article aims to provide some preliminary results of a research project named ENERWAT, with the main goal to characterize the relation between water and energy consumption at the end use level for urban and rural environments. One of the goals of the aforementioned project was the design, application, and results analysis of a survey, in order to find the main differences in the water and energy consumptions at the end use level and the factors that influence it in urban and rural households. A total of 245 households participated in the research during 2016 (110 urban dwellings and 135 rural), responding to questions on their family composition, dwellings characterization, water and energy consumption habits, and conservation behaviors of these resources. The project also includes the instrumentation and monitoring of dwellings in rural and urban environments to quantify the water consumption and related energy consumption. This stage is still in progress and includes in situ measurements of nine different households (four in rural and five in urban environments) during at least one year. In this article, some of the results obtained by the survey application and the in situ measurements are presented. Despite the large number of data and the associated complexity, it can be concluded that the joint analysis of the results allows identification of a connection between water and energy consumption, as well as a household’s consumption patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy to water nexus; ENERWAT project; survey; in situ measurements energy to water nexus; ENERWAT project; survey; in situ measurements
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Matos, C.; Cunha, A.; Pereira, F.; Gonçalves, A.; Silva, E.; Pereira, S.; Bentes, I.; Faria, D.; Briga-Sá, A. Characterization of Water and Energy Consumptions at the End Use Level in Rural and Urban Environments: Preliminary Results of the ENERWAT Project. Urban Sci. 2019, 3, 8.

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