Milk is an important food for many populations in West Africa, mainly in Burkina Faso, where it forms the basis of diet in Sahel and Hauts-Bassins populations [1
]. Milk is the main source of animal protein available in rural areas and highly consumed (in winter or throughout the year) especially during Ramadan. It is often added to certain foods at fresh state or curd (couscous, rice, galettes
). It is a food of paramount importance in the nutrition of pregnant, lactating women, and infants. Although livestock farming has long been regarded as an activity reserved for the Fulani
, its practice has today intensified and spread to all regions of the country because of the socio-economic and food benefits it offers [2
Currently, the country’s breeding is more focused on ruminants and poultry. Regarding the importance of livestock for the country’s food security, the milk sector has been selected as a priority sector for revival of the livestock sector in the National Policy for Sustainable Development of Livestock with the horizon of 2025. This policy displays the guidelines for livestock development in Burkina Faso, and serves as a benchmark for medium- and long-term actions aimed at making Burkina Faso livestock farming “A competitive and environmentally friendly livestock farming around the world which organizes real value chains carried by professional sectors, turned the market and which contributes as much the food security as to improvement the level of well-being in Burkina Faso
The demand of animal products, especially milk, is growing steadily thanks to rising incomes, changing dietary patterns in recent years and lower prices compared to the period of the year. Therefore, if the actors of this sector obtained more training, equipment and worked to improve cattle breeds, milk production could reach 250 million liters per year [2
]. The main products derived from its processing are curd, yogurt, wagashi
, pasteurized milk, cream, butter and Katarè
]. According to consumers, the quality of milk and dairy products varies enormously. Ignorance (or neglect) of hygiene rules during milk processing and the use of certain agricultural and veterinary inputs are often suspected as factors affecting this quality [5
The processing and marketing of dairy products is an income-generating activity practiced in both urban and rural areas and has intensified in Burkina Faso and in the West Africa sub-region. It would be interesting to evaluate the sanitary risks associated with the production and sale of local milk to inform processors about the corrective measures to be applied for reducing food poisoning without compromising the availability of food, dairy farmers’ income, and economic development. The methods used to carry out this study are the literature search and the use of a participatory risk analysis process associated with the practices of actors and risks to the contamination of dairy products along the food chain. The research questions and the resulting hypotheses make it possible to define the objectives of this work. The exploitation of different practices of actors in the milk sector can make it possible to meet the requirements for the safety of milk and dairy products in Burkina Faso, which leads to the following questions: what are the risky practices of actors from the production to sale of milk? What are the consumer’s opinions on the sanitary quality of milk and dairy products consumed in Burkina Faso?
This study, therefore, aims to assess the socio-economic characteristics of actors, the level of consumption, the consumers’ opinion on the quality of local curd and sanitary risk factors associated with it along the food chain.
Livestock is a wealth and a biodiversity to be valued. Four regions include the majority of Burkina Faso’s herds: Sahel
, Boucle du Mouhoun
and Centre Ouest
. Milk production is highly regionalized and Sahel region is the country’s dairy basin [1
]. Milk is an essential source of food security and family income for many nomadic and sedentary populations in sub-Saharan Africa [10
]. Its combination with cereals allows people to fight malnutrition due to nutrient deficiency in diets.
The study of sociocultural characteristics of actors showed that activities of breeding and milk production are essentially done by men (Table 1
). These activities occupy men and women of different age groups with a low level of education, dominated by Fulani
. Processing and marketing are generally provided by women with a low level of education. Women owners of livestock are less mobile than men because of their household tasks. This situation limits their possession and management to small livestock sheep, goats, and poultry. Women are large consumers of dairy products are associated with cereal [11
]. Animal and vegetable foods are among the most commonly processed foods sold in markets and streets by out-of-school women. These same findings have been highlighted by similar studies of local products processed and marketed in West Africa [12
]; however, they differ from those reported by Katinan et al. [15
] and Koutou et al. [16
] with men in majority, because traditionally, among breeders, milk belonged to woman, but with social changes of income managers occurring, some men are addressing this exploitation.
The type of livestock practiced, the domesticated dairy animal species, the type of milk used, the processing technology, the diversity of products obtained, and the fate of milk differ from one ethnic group to another [17
] and from one region to another. Traditional livestock is reserved for the nomadic populations of Sahel (Fulani
) and only three high-performance dairy species producing large quantities of milk i.e., camel, goat and cow are exploited, while sheep is under exploited. However, nowadays, women transform milk powder imported from developed countries, contributing to degradation of the local milk sector; this finding was reported by Oudet [9
] in Koudougou by Fulani
women who practiced it.
In Burkina Faso, curd production technology plays an important role in the artisanal processing of fresh milk [18
]. This technology is based on empirical knowledge and is transmitted from generation to generation within the family or the tribe. At Fulani
level, girls learn with their mothers, close relatives, or mothers-in-law in the case that “milk work” is an important component of education: feeding of dairy female, milking, milk fermentation, churning, conditioning milk curd, maintenance of all dairy equipment, marketing of milk, curds, and butter. Thus, she will have full responsibility for leading her family microenterprise [19
]. However, these traditional processes do not take care of maintaining the effective ferments to ensure products with good organoleptic qualities.
Drifting products (milk and meat) of these four species are traditionally eaten for sociocultural reasons. These diversities of sociocultural considerations have been evoked by previous studies concerning cultural and nutritional aspects, designating certain animals as Halal (Buffalo, deer, camel, horse, goat, sheep, cow) and other as Haram (donkey, cat, dog, lion, primates) by Benzertiha et al. [20
]. Some unconventional milks (donkey, monkey) would be eaten for health reasons (mare) and mystical practices. Camel milk is commonly used to relieve convalescent patients, fatigue states, strengthen immune defenses and stimulate physical activity in overworked organisms [21
]. These claims are based on purely empirical observations that sometimes seem to be more self-persuasive in some ethnic groups. Thus, the milk of camel and mare are precursors respectively of courage and speed at consumer level. In addition, the study revealed that curd is a highly valued food in Burkina Faso. It is consumed by all social classes, whatever is their education level and their economic situation and hence the importance of milk consumption is contributing to fighting malnutrition and food insecurity [22
]. The use of unconventional veterinary inputs, clandestine purchase, non-compliance of waiting period, ignorance, or negligence of the rules of good hygiene practices, bad practices of trafficking, mismanagement of waste from mining and hospital sources, exposure of livestock feed on contamination and consumer perceptions are risky practices significantly affecting health animal status and sanitary quality of products of animal origin and rendering it unfit for human consumption. Previous studies in West Africa done by Savadogo et al. [23
], Boko et al. [24
], Coulibaly et al. [25
], Kouamé-Sina et al. [6
], Katinan et al. [15
], Bonfoh et al. [26
], Arohalassi et al. [5
], in East Africa by Yilma et al. [27
], Seifu [28
], Seifu and Tassew [29
], Ahmed et al. [30
], in South Africa by Beukes et al. [31
] and in North Africa by Aggad et al. [32
] mentioned that these practices contributed to contamination of milk with pathogenic germs and toxic substances, rendering it unfit for human consumption and therefore a danger to public health.
Clinical signs cited by consumers (Figure 6
B) are related to ingestion of milk contaminated with pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus
, Bacillus cereus
, E. coli
and Enterococci faecalis
from the udders, milking water, milker, environment, materials, manipulator, and insufficient treatment of milk. The presence of stray animals, birds, insects, and rodents would be a source of contamination of poorly stocked equipment and feed [6
]. The antibiotic and pesticide residues would be at the origin of some clinical signs (digestive disorders, vomiting and diarrhea). Studies conducted by Arohalassi et al. [5
] in Niger, Issa [33
] in Mauritania, Bonfoh et al. [26
] in Mali, Kouamé-Sina et al. [6
] in Côte d’Ivoire and Samandoulougou et al. [34
] in Burkina Faso reported different prevalence rates of antibiotic residues of 2.85%, 11%, 16.70%, 24.70% and 31% respectively in marketed animals.
Damages recorded in herds are strongly related to diseases contracted by animals. Among these diseases, salmonellosis, pulmonia, peripulmonia, diarrhea, mycoses, symptomatic anthrax, bloating, Brucellosis B are the most common and mastitis very frequent [35
]. The non-treatment of sick animals, rejection of corpses of dead animals in the wild, and the negligence or ignorance of bovine vaccination campaigns cause the spread and persistence of diseases, hence the decimation of herds and making the milk and meat unfit for human consumption. Kouamé-Sina et al. [6
] and, Razaa and Kim [36
] reported that poor practices of actors, the presence of disease-carrying animals, poor management of household and industrial wastes, uncontrolled use of veterinary and agricultural inputs, engine pollution, and exposure of equipment and feed, similar to those observed during the investigation, are the source of the contamination of milk and dairy products (Figure 8
). Improving the sanitary quality of origin of animal products, therefore, depends on good practice by the actors in the sector and the regulations adopted by the ministry to avoid cross-contamination [6
In addition, the attention paid to the sanitary quality of products is becoming increasingly important in Africa, as in Burkina Faso, which is developing a guide to good hygiene practices in controlling dairy processing [37
]. Food control authorities should implement a policy for quality practices, the popularization of these practices, as well as zootechnical supervision of actors in sector.