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How Does the Urban Environment Affect Health and Well-Being? A Systematic Review

1
Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing (IVDP), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
2
Meteorological Institute, Centrum für Erdsystemforschung und Nachhaltigkeit (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
3
Institute of Geography, Centrum für Erdsystemforschung und Nachhaltigkeit (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Urban Sci. 2018, 2(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci2010021
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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PDF [884 KB, uploaded 2 March 2018]
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Abstract

In times of rapid urbanization, health and well-being of citizens is increasingly recognized as a challenge. A remarkable amount of research on relations between urban environments and health or well-being has been conducted. To get an insight about the existing measurements on both health combined with well-being, a systematic literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed and ScienceDirect including references until July 2017. To classify the references a conceptual model describing interrelationships between factors that may be associated with health-related urban well-being was used. The keywords “urban”, “well-being”, and “health” were applied together with factors described in the model. Twenty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, most studies focused on associations between urban green, health and well-being showing the great importance of green space usage in urban settings to promote better health and well-being. Health was mostly assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); to measure well-being, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) was mostly used. There are still only a few studies investigating the great complexity of urban health and well-being. More specifically, there is a lack in interdisciplinary approaches that highlight the complexity of urban structures and dynamics and their possible influence on urban health and well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban environment; health; well-being; UrbWellth; review urban environment; health; well-being; UrbWellth; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krefis, A.C.; Augustin, M.; Schlünzen, K.H.; Oßenbrügge, J.; Augustin, J. How Does the Urban Environment Affect Health and Well-Being? A Systematic Review. Urban Sci. 2018, 2, 21.

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