Free Shrinkage Strains of Box Girders with Concrete Overlays
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Geometry and Mesh Size
2.2. Humidity Profiles
2.2.1. Initial Drying Humidity Profile
2.2.2. Drying Humidity: Solution Method
2.3. Free Shrinkage Strains
3.1. Humidity Profiles
3.2. Free Shrinkage Strain Profiles
4.1. Humidity Profiles: Discussion of the Results
4.2. Free Shrinkage Strains: Discussion of the Results
- The humidity gradient between the overlay and the substrate generates differential volume changes between them. The substrate deformations are negligible while the overlay is subjected to high shrinkage strains.
- The internal humidity gradient must be considered because it influences the drying shrinkage and it may result in increased tensile stress, which may lead to early age cracking.
- The predicted free shrinkage strain values suggest that the overlay might be quite susceptible to cracking.
- The computation of shrinkage strains increases with time, and after 50 years, full equilibrium is reached; however, an analysis of about 10 years seems to be appropriate for practical applications and standard designs conducted in engineering firms, leading to a reduction in computational work for the prediction of stresses, probability of cracking, or displacements due to restrained shrinkage of new concrete overlays.
6. Future Work
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Parmiani, M.G.; Orta, L. Free Shrinkage Strains of Box Girders with Concrete Overlays. Infrastructures 2023, 8, 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8050096
Parmiani MG, Orta L. Free Shrinkage Strains of Box Girders with Concrete Overlays. Infrastructures. 2023; 8(5):96. https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8050096Chicago/Turabian Style
Parmiani, Maria Giulia, and Luis Orta. 2023. "Free Shrinkage Strains of Box Girders with Concrete Overlays" Infrastructures 8, no. 5: 96. https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8050096