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Infrastructures 2018, 3(3), 22;

Building up and Characterization of Calcined Marl-Based Geopolymeric Cement

Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71511, Egypt
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83511, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
PDF [5218 KB, uploaded 6 July 2018]


The present study mainly investigates the synthesis of calcined marl-based geopolymeric cement under different synthesis conditions including NaOH concentration, sodium silicate (SS)/sodium hydroxide (SH) mass ratios, solid (S)/liquid (L) mass ratios, calcination temperatures, curing temperatures, curing times, and aging intervals. The studied head sample was obtained from the Abu-Tartur phosphate mine in the Western Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and mineralogical characterizations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR). Regarding calcination, this was conducted at 550, 650, 750, and 850 °C for one hour and resulted in thermal decomposition of calcite and saponite and the formation of new mineral phases including anthophyllite, wollastonite, and silica. On the other hand, the geopolymerization process was initiated by mixing the calcined marl sample with the alkali activation solution at different mixing ratios and varying curing conditions. The compressive strength measurements indicate that 750 °C, 12 M NaOH, 0.6 SS/SH mass ratio, 2 S/L mass ratio, 80 °C curing temperature, 12 h curing time, and 28 days aging time are considered all to be the optimum synthesis conditions of the Abu-Tartur calcined marl-based geopolymer. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopolymer; calcined marl; alkali activation; compressive strength geopolymer; calcined marl; alkali activation; compressive strength

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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El-Habaak, G.; Askalany, M.; Abdel-Hakeem, M. Building up and Characterization of Calcined Marl-Based Geopolymeric Cement. Infrastructures 2018, 3, 22.

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