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Designs 2018, 2(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs2040050

Design of a Wireless and Energy Autonomous Sensor Network for Condition Monitoring of Tram Drive Components

1
Faculty of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Karl-Liebknecht-Street 134, 04277 Leipzig, Germany
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Street 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibrational Systems: Control, Sensing and Energy Harvesting)
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Abstract

Although condition monitoring is very important for a reliable operation of tram powertrain components, conventional wired sensor systems do not manage to find wide acceptance because of installation and security costs. To address those issues, we propose a novel condition monitoring system based on a wireless and energy self-sufficient sensor network, where the individual sensor nodes harvest energy from vibrations, occurring while the tram is in motion. First, we performed an experimental investigation to identify the most important boundary conditions for the system design. Second, we designed individual sensor nodes using parameters derived from the previous investigation. Finally, the sensor network was deployed and tested on the tram gearboxes. The obtained measurement data were recorded at a sufficient sampling rate of 4.56 kHz and were successfully transferred from the tram gearbox to the network base station within a radius of 10 m inside the tram despite factors such as reflections, fading and electromagnetic compatibility. A piezoelectric vibration harvester is the power supply for the sensor nodes and it delivers up to 21.22 mW for relevant vibration frequency range between 10 Hz and 30 Hz, thus enabling deployment of autonomous sensor nodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: condition monitoring; sensor network; energy harvesting; tram drive components condition monitoring; sensor network; energy harvesting; tram drive components
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Wolf, M.; Hund, S.; Rudolph, M.; Kanoun, O. Design of a Wireless and Energy Autonomous Sensor Network for Condition Monitoring of Tram Drive Components. Designs 2018, 2, 50.

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